• The process of influencing the activities of an
organized group in its efforts toward goal setting and
• There is no leadership without followers!
Do things right.
Maintain order and stability.
Is a technician, administrator, and problem solver.
Establish plans and budgets, monitors and controls, …
Do the right thing. • Are visionaries, drive new initiatives. • Is a prophet, catalyst, mover- shaker, strategist. • Inspires, generates positive change, ...
The trait theory
There is one best way to lead; personality traits allow certain people to master the best way.
- Based on the „great man theory“.
- Great men are born leaders, they have built in qualities, they take the power regardless of the context.
stops women from reaching roles higher up the hierarchical ladder
promoting women to high risk positions, being set up to fail.
Difference bewteen men and women
Consideration leadership theory
Focus on relationships and employees‘ social needs.
Initiating structure leadership theory
Focus on tasks and jobs at hand.
there is no one-fit-all. Leaders adjust their behavior depending on the context.
Structured vs. Unstructured task theory
- Based on the task, leader‘s power, and leader-follower relationship
- Leaders have to change the context.
Situational leadership theory
- Task behavior and supportive behavior.
* Leaders can adapt their style.
• Inspire others to perform.
• Leadership is a function of exchange
• The leadership role is distributed among various people.
Why should organizations change?
- Environment changes
- Customer, supplier demands, new technology, …
- External or internal triggers
• Constant change lead to corporate burnout
- An emotional response to change
* Ideal model
• Task performance increases with
arousal, stimulation and pressure
Classical decision theory
• We are objective
• We have complete information and we consider all options and their
Rational model of decision making
• Decision making is a rational process
• It consists of several steps that lead to a desired
rely on limited information, reflects time constraints
and political considerations
Decision making bias
Is group decision making better than the individual?
• Average quality of a group decision is higher than a decision made by an
• Average quality of a group decision is lower than the one of a most
capable individual member in the group.
• It depends on the task and individuals in a group.
position that is held on an issue is intensified due to the discussion in
Tendency of the groups to make riskier
decisions than an individual would.
Tendency of the groups to make more
risk averse decisions than an individual.
Individuals accept a viewpoint of the group even if they do not agree.