Environmental complexity (simple – complex) Environmental dynamism (stable – dynamic)
The focus is on the big picture
Convenient framework to plan for future opportunities and threats
It may identify non significant factors
Some events are difficult to anticipate
May be time consuming and expensive Slow response
Analyze the environment: Scenario planning
How to judge if a behavior is ethical?
There is no consensus on what is ethical
Framework by Cavanagh et al. (1981)
Utilitarianism („the greatest good for the greatest number“)
Individual rights (Have individual rights been violated?)
Natural justice (Consistent application of rules)
The ethical decision tree
Corporate social responsibility
Main reasons for CSR popularity:
First industrial revolution (steam engine)
Second industrial revolution (electricity)
Third industrial revolution (computing)
Fourth industrial revolution (robotics and artificial intelligence)
First machine age (began with steam engine)
Second machine age (computerization)
Desired to perform 4D tasks (Dirty, Dangerous, Dear (expensive), Dull
Cobots (collaborative robots)
- Operate in conjunction with employees
* Robot-human teams are 85% more productive than either of them working alone (Hollinger, 2016)
Artificial intelligence (AI)
Task is done by computer software which would otherwise require human
Allows software applications to become more accurate at predicting outcomes without being explicitly programmed to do so. Machine learning algorithms use historical data as input to predict new output values.
Designed to simulate our brain functions
Types of AI
Technology that superimposes a computer-generated image on a user’s view of the real world, thus providing a composite view via tablet or phone for example.
3 main capabilities of augmented reality
Instruction and guidance
intelligent machines substitute people at work leading to unemployment.
What can be automated?
Routine, repetitive physical work
Jobs with low and medium skills may be the most affected
However, new technology is catching up