Lecture 1 - Neuroscience Methods for Physiological Methods 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 1 - Neuroscience Methods for Physiological Methods 1 Deck (94)
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1

How are neuroscience techniques classified

Across 2 different axis

1. Temporal Resolution - varying milliseconds

2. Spatial Resolution - varying coarse to fine molecules

Excelled temporal resolution spatial resolution weaker

2

What are the 4 categories of neuroscience techniques

Spatial resolution: cellular level

Temporal resolution: millisecond scale

While brain studied simultaneously

Non-invasive

3

How is the brain segmented

Segmented according appearance microscope

Cytoarchitectonics

Sharp views across brain

4

If all cells 6 layers how can they be different

Certain areas wider than others = allow discrimination
Requires microscopic anatomy
Combined compatible neuroanatomy. Require integration from other methods

5

Does appearance reflect the type of cell

Yes
Variance layers reflects difference in functions

Type cell correlates with function

6

Who compares the motor and somatosensory cortex

Kolb and Whishaw

7

Outline the motor cortex according to Kold and Whishaw

Thin layer 4 (input)

Wide layer 5 (output)

Pre central gyrus

Mainly processing output/afferents

8

What Broadmann area is related to the motor cortex

Brodmann area 4

9

What do efferents do

Connections control spinal and muscle movement in layers 3 and 5

10

Outline the Somatosensory Cortex according to Kolb and Whishaw

Wide layer 4 (Input)

Thin layer 5 (output)

Post central gyrus

Mainly processing inputs/efferents

11

What Broadmann area is related to the somatosensory cortex

Brodmann area 1, 2, 3

12

What is the main difference between Motor Cortex and Somatosensory Cortex

Motor: wide layer 5, pre central gyrus, processing outputs

Somatosensory: thin layer 5, post central gyrus, processing inputs

13

What is Brodmann Area 17 associated with

Primary visual cortex - occipital

14

What is Brodmann Area 41 associated with

Primary auditory cortex - superior temporal cortex

15

Compare temporal and spatial resolution about TMS

Excellent temporal

Good spatial resolution

Cortical mapping

16

What does TMS stand for

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

17

What does Transcranial mean

Means something happens through skulls

18

How is a TMS set up

Stimulator places above scallop contains coil wire
Brief pulse electrical current fed through coil

19

What is the result of the TMS

Magnetic field flux lines perpendicular plane coil
Induces electric field perpendicular to magnetic field
Leads neuronal excitation within brain - trans-cranial

20

Strengths of using TMS

Non invasive
Painless
Safe stimulation

21

What are the uses of a TMS

Study behaviour during

Virtual brain lesions

Chronometry

Functional connectivity

22

Does TMS effects depend on stimulation site

Yes

23

What are the TMS effects when placed above the lateral surface of the brain

Excitation areas 4 3 2 1

Effect motor consequence/movement

24

What are the TMS effects when placed above the occipital surface of the brain

Activate area 17

Effect visual perception

25

Outline Motor Cortex Stimulation

Activated cortico-spinal neuroma trans synaptically

Spatial resolution applied neighbouring sites motor homunculus activate different lower arm movements such as thumb and little finger twitches

TMS means separate these tasks

Record motor EPs (surface EMG, target muscle relaxes)

Record silent period contracted target muscles

26

Outline an example of motor cortex stimulation

TMS coil 5cm lateral from vertex
Often contralateral thumb twitches (20ms post TMS)

27

Outline Occipital Cortex Stimulation

Excitatory effects
Perceptions without cognitive stimulation
E.g. phosphenes, inhibitory effects: suppression motor perception and letter identification, interference

28

Outline Somatosensory Cortex Stimulation

Elicit tingling
Block detection peripheral stimuli (tactile, pain)

Modify somatosensory evoked potentials

29

Outline Auditory Cortex Stimulation

Interpretation results challenging: loud coil click

More complicated TMS interpretation

30

Outline Frontal Cortex Stimulation

Effects mood and therapeutic use

Effects measure peripheral responses as impaired or altered perception as improved or impaired task performance or as brains direct responses

Detected EEG PET fMRI