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Flashcards in Lecture 12 - Anxiety Deck (61)
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1

Define stress

Physiological and psychological state of disruption caused by presence of unarticulated disruptive or stimulating event

2

Define a stressor

Factors or events real or imagined elicit a response of stress disorder

3

Define Eustress

Stress adds positive enhancing dimension to quality of life

4

Define distress

Stress diminishes quality of life commonly associated with disease maladaption and illness

5

What are the potential responses to stress

Physiological
Cognitive
Emotional
Behavioural

6

What did Canon 1914 investigate with stress

Animals responses
Fight or flight
Danger creates physiological reactions prepare organisms to respond
Adaptive evolutionary

7

Pros of fight or flight response

Help respond more quickly to threat

8

Negatives of fight or flight response

Harmful to health of prolonged

9

External physiological responses to threat

Pupils dilate
Hairs on end - more sensitive environment

10

Outline changes to heart in physiological responses to threat

Heart rate increase
Artistries construct maximise pressure
Veins open out ease return blood to heart

11

Outline respiratory system changes to physiological responses to threat

Respiratory system lungs throat and nostrils open up
Breathing speeding up get more air in system
Increase blood flow be reoxygenated
Blood carried oxygen to muscles allowing them work harder

12

Outline creating instant energy as physiological response to threat

Fat from fatty cells
Glucose from liver
Metabolised to create instant energy

13

Outline kidney and digestive system physiological responses to threat

Blood vessels to kidney and digestive system constrict
Shutting down systems not essential
Reduction saliva in mouth

14

Outline bowels and bladder physiological response to threat

Bowles and bladder may open out to reduce need for other internal actions

15

Outline the skins physiological response to threat

Blood vessels to skin construct reducing any potential blood loss
Sweat glands open providing external cooling liquid

16

Outline endorphins and physiological response to threat

Endorphins are released
Reduce pain

17

Define stress hormone Glucocorticoid

Group hormones of adrenal cortex
Kidney important in protein and carbohydrate metabolism

Secreted especially in times of stress

18

Define stress hormone Corricotropin-releasing Hormone CRH

Hypothalamic hormone stimulates anterior pituitary gland

Secretes ACTH
(Adrenocorticotopic hormone)

19

Define stress hormone Adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH

Hormone released by anterior pituitary gland

Response to CRH

Stimulates adrenal cortex to produce glucocorticoids

20

Outline Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenocortical System

1. CRF released response environmental stressor (uncertainty arousal)

2. ACTH released by pituitary

3. Releases corticosteroids

4. Stressor terminated negative feedback occurs shutting down HPA Axis

21

Flow diagram of HPA Axis Response

Stress ->
CRF ->
Pituitary ->
ACTH ->
Adrenals ->
Cortisol

22

What did Hans Selye hope to discover

Proposed model explain how stress affects the body

Hoping discover new sex hormone
Injected rats with ovarian hormone extract

23

What 3 effects did Hans Selye Identify

1. Enlargement of adrenal cortex

2. Shrinking of thymus gland

3. Bleeding ulcers

24

What did Hans Selye conclude

Injected other fluids found same reaction
Same reaction to electric shock, surgical trauma and immobilisation restraint

Body’s reaction to stress was general

25

What 3 stages did Selyes Adaption Syndrome suggest

1. Alarm reaction

2. Resistance

3. Exhaustion

26

Outline stage 1 Alarm Reaction in Selyes General Adaption Syndrome

Physical or mental trauma trigger immediate reactions combat stress
Immune system initially depressed
Normal levels resistance lowered more susceptible infection/disease
Stress not severe or long we recover rapidly

Periods stress - exams more likely have cold
Environment and how we interpret interacts with immune system

27

Outline stage 2 Resistance in Selyes General Adaption Syndrome

Adapt to stress
More resistant to illness
Immune system becomes over activate keep up with demands
Begin to cope
If stress persists leads to stage 3

28

Outline stage 3 Exhaustion in Selyes General Adaption Syndrome

Body not able to maintain homeostasis and long term resistance needed combat stress
Develop sudden drop in resistance level
No one experienced exactly same resistance and tolerance to stress
Everyone’s immunity collapses following prolonged stress reactions
Life sustaining mechanisms slow down organ systems break down
“Diseases of adaptation”

29

Outline strengths of Selyes Model

General theory variety of stressors

Physiological and environmental interaction

Physiological mechanism for relationship between stress and illness

30

Outline weaknesses of Selyes Model

Limited role psychological factors

Assumes responses uniform - variances in individuals

Considers stress as an outcome