Lecture 11 - Affective Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 11 - Affective Disorders Deck (82)
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1

Outline statistics in depression

Common cold of mental illness
Most widespread
1 in 10 chance least one depressive episode
1 in 20 visits to dr
> 100 per drs list but half unrecognised
20% develop chronic depression

2

Why may patients not mention depression

Embarrassment
Stigma
Avoid lack sympathy

3

What are the 4 symptoms of depression

1. Mood emotional

2. Thought cognitive symptoms

3. Motivational symptoms

4. Somatic physical symptoms

4

Outline mood emotional symptoms of depression

Hopelessness
Emptiness
Loneliness

5

Outline thought cognitive symptoms of depression

Memory affected
Poorer decision making

6

Outline motivational symptoms of depression

Feelings of rewards attenuated

7

Outline somatic physical symptoms of depression

Manifest differently
Walking slower

8

Outline Unipolar Depression

Mixed anxiety and depression
Recurrent depressive = numerous
Or depressive episode single

Dysthymia persistent and mild = depressive personality

9

Outline Bipolar disorder

Bipolar affective disorder with manic episodes

Cyclothymia persistent instability of mood

10

Outline affective disorders and creativity

Link between affective disorders, bipolar and cyclothymia and creativity

Writers, poets and artists high proportion cyclothymia and major depressive disorder

11

Outline 3 different systems of brain areas involved in depression

Glutamate System

Dopamine system

GABA System

12

How is the Amygdala associated with depression

Associated anxiety

13

How is the nucleus accumbens involved in depression

Important motivation and reward

14

How is the pre frontal cortex involved in depression

Associated cognitive abilities and decision making

15

How is the hippocampus involved in depression

Involved in memory

Hippocampal loss with untreated depression

16

What is important for the regulation of emotion

Increased metabolic activity in amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex

17

Outline summary of nucleus accumbens brain change in depression

Decrease volume
Decrease BOLD in reward related task

Decrease expression synaptic remodelling gene RAC1

18

Outline summary of hippcampus brain change in depression

Decrease volume
Decrease BOLD during positive word encoding task

Decrease synapse density
Decrease glial cell density

19

Outline summary of basolateral amygdala brain change in depression

Decrease volume
Increase resisting state BOLD

Decrease gray matter
Decrease glial cell density

20

Outline summary of Medial Prefrontal Cortex brain change in depression

Decrease volume
Decrease BOLD during reversal learning task

Decrease white matter
Decrease dendritic branching
Decrease glial cell density

21

How much of depression is inherited Sullivan et al 2000

35-70+%

22

Outline Sullivan et al 2000 twin concordance rate for mood disorders in twins

Any mood disorder: MZ 60% DZ 20%

Severe depression MZ 60% DZ 30%

Depression MZ 35% DZ 15%

Bipolar MZ 80% DZ 15%

23

Outline Seligman 1975 learned helplessness experiment method

Dogs in apparatus able shuffle 1 side box to another
Very mild foot shock allowed them escape other side box with no shock

Some prevented from escaping for while then given opportunity to escape

24

Outline Seligman 1975 learned helplessness experiment findings

Instead of escaping didn’t escape learned helplessness

No previous opportunity escape - learned futile and didn’t both

25

How do learned helplessness animals show Biological features of depression according to Seligman 1975

REM sleep alterations
Loss body weight
Diminished sexual activity
Elevated corticosterone - stress hormone

Link cognitive function to biological function

26

Outline recovery in Seligmans learned helplessness 1975 study

Recovery after 48 hours
Due to recovery of hypothalamic noradrenaline levels which is reduced in helpless animals

27

What trophic actions

Increased function and survival of cells
By chronic antidepressant treatment

28

What is the Monoamine Theory Hypothesis of depression

Depression due depletion monoamines - noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine

Originated drugs that depleted such: reserpine (motivational problems in animals)

29

Limitations on Monoamine Theory of depression

Too simplistic
Delayed action of antidepressant drugs

30

How is the Monoamine Theory of depression modified

Include down regulation of NA receptors