Lecture 9 - Generics of Schiz Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 9 - Generics of Schiz Deck (75)
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1

Outline genetics for the typical person

Nucleus cell 23 chromosome pairs
Chromosomes - set DNA
DNA series codes and bases code different molecules protein
Gene section codes for particular molecules

2

What are vase pairs in typical genetics

Differ along strand DNA

Adenine-Thymine A-T

Guanine-Cytosine G-C

3

Heritability of Schiz

81%

4

Heritability bipolar

85%

5

Heritability Alzheimer’s Disease

75%

6

Heritability Autism

80%

7

Heritability anxiety

28%

8

What does heritability mean

Proportion of total variation between individuals in given population due to genetic variation

Not inheritance

9

What can go wrong with genes

Difference in codes affects phenotypes = expression

10

What can go wrong with genes SNP

SNP = altercations code but doesn’t change meaning

11

What can go wrong with genes mutation

Mutation = completely changes meaning, decrease making enzyme controls

12

What can go wrong with genes duplication

Duplication = copy number variation, harder, impossible read alter function

13

What can go wrong with genes deletion

Deletion = make harder/impossible read

14

What is the percentage likelihood Schiz in general population

1%

15

What is the percentage likelihood Schiz in identical twins

48%

16

What is the percentage likelihood Schiz in fraternal twins

17%

17

What is the percentage likelihood Schiz in children

13%

18

What is the percentage likelihood Schiz in siblings

9

19

What is the percentage likelihood Schiz in parents

6

20

What is the percentage likelihood Schiz in first cousins uncles/aunts

2

21

What are the approaches to the study of genetics

Family studies
Twin studies
Adopted studies
Linkage analysis studies
Genome wide association studies GWAS

22

Outline family studies of Schiz

Begin 1916 first systematic studies
“Feeble mindedness” ran in families

23

Outline limitations of family studies

No control groups
Environments are similar between family members

24

Outline Maudsley Twin Study of Schiz

Individuals registered for treatment at Maudsley hospital 1948-93

106 interviews

25

Outline results in Maudsley Twin Study of Schiz

Correlation psychiatric disorders in MZ twins .81
DZ twins .31

26

Outline Finnish Twin Study of Schiz

Centralised hospital records 1969-91
Similar to Maudsley study
508 records

27

Outline Finnish Twin Study of Schiz results

Showed correlation in
MZ twins .84
DZ twins .34

28

Limitations of twin studies

Different approach have different impacts on findings
Can’t ask questions or clarify things
Is environment really constant between MZ and DZ?
Different treatment MZ (treatment more similar) and DZ

29

Outline Adoption study of Oregon Study

50 children born women with Schiz - adopted within 3 days of birth. Matched with adopted children parents with no record psychiatric admittance

10.6% rate Schiz - same rate people reared by parents with Schiz

30

Outline adoption study of Danish Studies

34 adoptees hospitalised Schiz
34 control
Rate Schiz first degree Biological relatives 7.9% compared 0.9% controls

Sharing genes but not environment 10x higher risk
Sharing environment but no genes no increased risk