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What is cognition?

The mental process involved in acquiring, representing and processing knowledge (thinking(thoughts), remembering (memories), perceiving and communicating)


What two things is cognition characterised by?

Individual differences in perception-vary massively - allows us to make choices
Subjective interpretations of one's environment and relationships


What is the relationship between cognition and learning?

People actively think about behaviour and outcomes
We detect contingencies (and changes) - past memories and experiences help understand
Learning is not automatic or mindless - rely on cognition


What is Observational learning?

Observational learning occurs when an organisms responding is influenced by the observations of others, who are called models


What did Albert Bandura do?

Albert Bandura has demonstrated that both classical and operant conditioning can take place vicariously through observational learning
"most human behaviour is learned by observation through modelling"
- your follow behaviour in either same or opposite way based on the pos or neg experience of the model (if i do it like them i will get a reward like them)


What does the observational learning circle consist of?

Attention --> Retention --> reproduction --> Motivation
With observational learning in the middle


What does "Attention" in Observational learning considered to be?

Pay attention to model
Whether they are getting rewarded or punished


What does "Retention" in Observational learning considered to be?

Maintain a mental representation for a decent time (don't forget)
As you may not be able to act straight away


What does "Reproduction" in Observational learning considered to be?

Need to be able to repeat it
-gymnast doing a complicated olympic routine, think it looks cool but most probably won't be able to replicate


What does "Motivation" in Observational learning considered to be?

What kind of pay off is the other person getting, and what payoff will i get


In observational learning, what three things does the imitation of a model's behaviour depend on?

1.Prestige of the model
2. Likeability and attractiveness of the model
3. Whether the model was rewarded or punished for their behaviour (vicarious conditioning)


What is Vicarious conditioning?

Whether the model was rewarded or punished for their behaviour
-they're getting positive benefits, i can get the same


What were some features of the Bobo Doll experiment?

3-6 year old children
Adult model played with toys including an inflatable Bobo doll:
-Aggressive condition - adult punched/hit/yelled at the Bobo doll
-Neutral condition - adult ignored the doll, played with other toys in the room
Child then left in the room with the toys including the Bobo doll
They imitated (an were more creative imaginative) the actions of the adult


What are the six applications of observational learning?

1. Survival
2. Treatment of phobias (psychotherapy)
3. Behavioural Intervention programs (modeling)
4. Modeling medical procedures (diabetes- nurse shows parent -parents show children)
5. Motor skill learning (sports coaching)
6. Health promotion (also edutainment-Children see children do ad)


What is an example of Behavioural Intervention programs, as an application of Observational learning?



What is an example of Modelling medical procedures, as an application of Observational learning?

nurse shows parents needle -parents show children


What is an example of Motor skill learning, as an application of Observational learning?

sports coaching


What is an example of Health promotion, as an application of Observational learning?

also Edutainment
-educational entertainment (games, tv etc) - Children see Children Do add


What is social cognition?

Process by which people select, interpret and remember SOCIAL INFORMATION (e.g. perfect guy vs con artist)
-peoples beliefs lead them to view the same situation from different view points and make contrary conclusions about what 'really' happened
-complex social occurrences cannot be viewed in an objective/unbiased fashion


What does the Cognitive Social Theory incorporate?

Conditioning (learning)
focus on cognition and focus on social learning


What are examples of observational learning in everyday life?

Older siblings - watch, and whether they can get away with it or not
-if they get in trouble you will tend to refrain from doing that
Tourist - don't speak language, and different language - observe others behaviour, where get ticket etc
Restaurant - wait for waiter? observe people around, so you can fit in, mimic behaviour and get same consequences


What is the point of observational learning?

You observe people around you
So you can fit it
Able to mimic their behaviours
Receive the same consequences (most likely reward)


What are some potential weak aspects of Albert Bandura's Bobo Doll experiment?

-Children may have been motivated by their desire to please adults, rather than genuine aggression
-Design of doll - it bounces back
-Selection bias - all children of Stanford academics Non representative sample
-Not a ethically and morally sound study - as manipulating children to act in an aggressive manner


What are some positive things about Albert Bandura's Bobo doll experiment?

Later study which we currently base off when treating phobias or fears:
He did a later study which was instrumental about observation learning
Children who were fearful of dogs, would observe children who weren't fearful, and them play with dog and get close with it
Over the course of 8 sessions, were less fearful, more happy and got in close contact with the dog


What is the debate about media violence?

computer games causing adolescences to be more violent
15 years later
longitudinal study
quantity of violent programmes --> self report + parents reporting how violent
shows both men and women in early 20's
-baseline aggressiveness for children


What is Locus of Control?

Cognitive social theory argues that we form expectations about the consequences of our behaviours
-fairly consistent pattern about our beliefs
"Locus of Control" is the expectancy as to whether or not fate determines outcomes in life
-whether fate determine our behaviours or our behaviours determine our own fate


What does the cognitive social theory argue?

We for expectations about the consequences of our behaviours


What is Internal "Locus"?

belief that own actions determine our fate
(failed and exam and response: "i should have studied harder")


What is External "Locus"?

belief that our lives are governed by forces outside our control or by people more powerful than ourselves
(failed and exam and response: "that was an unfair test" or "the room was too hot")


What are examples of Internal Locus of control?

I can get my dream job if i try hard and persevere
I can get an A+ if i study really hard
I am the master of my fate


What are examples of External Locus of control?

Making a lot of money is a matter of being lucky
Lecturers seem to give away marks at random
A great deal of stuff that happens to me is a matter of chance


What is a Health Locus of control?

Those who see their health as under their own control are more likely to practice food health care habits
Those with an external focus of control might believe that health is outside their control so take fewer actions to improve their health - can end up in poorer shape
Can have long term consequences for our health


What sort of effect can a health locus of control have on our lives?

Long-term consequences for our health


What is Self efficacy?

The belief that one can perform adequately in a particular situation


Locus of control vs Self efficacy?

Locus of control is more generalised and cross-situational
Self-efficacy is related to a competence in specific situations and activities - less generalised (low self efficacy does not mean low self esteem)


What is the relationship of Self efficacy in health?

Self efficacy plays an important role in one's health because when people feel that they have self-efficacy over their health conditions of treatments (e.g. the ability to stick to a difficult treatment regime or lifestyle changes), the effects of their health condition become less of a stressor


What 4 things is Self efficacy influenced by?

1. Mastery experience
2. Vicarious experience
3. Persuasion
4. Monitoring your emotional arousal


What is the "Mastery Experience" aspect of Self efficacy?

past actual accomplishments
think back to operational thinking


What is the "Vicarious Experience" aspect of Self efficacy?

your observations of others


What is the "Persuasion" aspect of Self efficacy?

others may persuade you that you can do it (or you can convince yourself)


What is the "Monitoring your emotional arousal" aspect of Self efficacy?

(monitoring your emotional arousal) as your approach the task -e.g. anxiety vs. excitement
-dont want to confuse these signals


What was the Experiment led by Martin Seligman in 1967?

Three groups of dogs:
1. Kept in harness and then let go (no electric shocks) -just contained
2. (administered a mild electric chock that could be stopped by pressing a level)
3. Administered a mild electric shock that lasted a period of tie (no lever i.e. could not stop the shocks/no control over the experiment)
Next, all dogs were put into a cage and shocked. To escape the chock, they had to jump over a small barrier (something that untrained dogs can easily do)
Group 1 and 2 quickly jumped over the barrier to escape(wuickly learned the behaviour)
Group 3 (those that previously were unable to escape the shocks) laid down and whined as they received the sick = Learned helplessness


What is the path to learned helplessness?

1. Uncontrollable bad events -->
2. PERCIEVED lack of control -->
3. Generalised helpless behaviour


What is Learned helplessness?

an expectancy that one cannot escape aversive events


What 3x deficits is learn helplessness marked by?

1. Motivational - Slow to initiate known actions
2. Emotional - appeared rigid, lifeless, frightened and distressed
3. Cognitive - demonstrated poor learning in new situations


What was the Motivational Deficit of Learned Helplessness?

Slow to initiate known actions


What was the Emotional Deficit of Learned Helplessness?

Appeared rigid, lifeless, frightened and distressed


What was the Cognitive Deficit of Learned Helplessness?

Demonstrated poor learning in new situations


What is Learned helplessness in humans in regards to negative health outcomes?

People in situations where they have little control (e.g. poverty homelessness, disabilities)experience negative health and mental consequences and may give up trying to influence their environment
-e.g. Researching from nursing homes suggest that increasing residents control over virtually anything, can have positive effects on their wellbeing
Humans who have grown up in environments with little control such as : those who grew up in abusive environments, poverty, prisons, elderly who live in society favouring youths, disabilities
They have learned that they are helpless (in ability to control their world) and this many have poor health and mental health consequences
Clinical depression may result from a perceived absence of control over a situation


How may Clinical depression arise?

Clinical depression may results from a perceived absence of control over a situation


What is the role of an individual's Explanatory style?

An individual's explanatory style can determine whether they develop depression following uncontrollable aversive events (e.g. early trauma/abuse)
-Optimistic style
-Pessimistic style
Your explanatory style is important - it can affects you and affect your health


What are the two types of explanatory style?

1. Optimistic Style
2. Pessimistic Style


What is the Optimistic style of the Explanatory style?

Healthy - credits success to internal factors, failures to external --> confidently work for success
event though may have experienced adversity are more prone to overcome
-Tends to be healthier and leads to a happier life


What is the Pessimistic style of the Explanatory style?

Unhealthy - credits success to luck
credits failures to lack ability
--> Low expectation of success
may be more objective
Tends to be more unhealthy


What is the Attribution Theory?

A theory of how people interpret and explain casual relationships in the social world
-Humans have the need to understand "Why?" (we are intuitive psychologists trying to figure what motivates other people)
-We want to know if the cause of behaviour is found in the person of the environment


What are the two parts of the Attribution Theory?

1. Situational (external) attribution
2. Dispositional (internal) attribution


What is an example of Situational (external) attribution?

Your flatmate hasn't done the dishes again .. Why is he being such a dork?
-(situational attribution)He's been under a lot of pressure lately


What is an example of Dispositional (internal) attribution?

Your flatmate hasn't done the dishes again .. Why is he being such a dork?
- (dispositional attribution) He's a lazy (and filthy) person


What are we constantly doing?

We constantly make very complex inferences based on very small amounts of small information
-So we take SHORTCUTS
Two main Errors of attribution
1. Fundamental attribution error
2. Self-serving bias


What are the two main errors of attribution?

1. Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE)
2. Self-serving Bias


What is FAE/ Fundamental Attribution Error?

Tendency for us to attribute another person's behaviour to personality while ignoring situational causes
-tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of external factors and to overestimate the impact of internal factors
- even when there are strong situational cues, we still tend to underestimate them
-most of us have a tendency to think a person's behaviour is a reflection of who they are (rather than what circumstances they are in) .... especially if their behaviour is negative
(Your flatmate hasn't done the dishes again - (dispositional attribution) He's a lazy (and filthy) person)-attributing to personality)


What are the 4 reasons why we make FAE/Fundamental Attributional Errors?

1. Often, we don't have enough information (or it is less interesting to us) about the situational factors to make a balanced decision so we attribute it to dispositional factors
2. We pay more attention to people than objects
3. When we consider our own behaviour in that same situation, we think we would have acted differently (as an observer we are focusing on the actor, as an actor we are more focused on the outer world)
4. Placing blame on an individual is a common practice in Western cultures (people are held responsible for their own actions)
-vs cultures with more collective


What is Self-serving Bias?

Tendency for us to attribute personal successes to internal factors(yay i am really smart) and personal failures to external factors (room was hot i couldn't concentrate)
-makes ourselves look better
Why? - Saving face in front of other people - preserves self esteem in the short term


What are the 2 motives which cause Self-serving Bias occur?

1. Saving face in front of other people
2. Preserves self-esteem in the short term


How can you avoid self-serving bias?

Self-serving bias can stop us from learning from our mistakes
-we always thinks failure has nothing to do with us, therefore we do nothing to correct those

-observe yourself, notice when you're doing it, and see if it helps you move forward
-dont think about causes of problems or dwell on the past
-recognise when something is your fault, and forgive yourself, so you can learn and grow


What are the three deficits of Learned helplessness very similar too?

Depression symptoms
-sluggishness, passive invasive stress, inability to concentrate, attention, fear, anxiety, social withdrawal, fatigue


What has research shown in relation to improving learned helplessness?

Research from nursing homes suggest that increasing resident's control over VIRTUAL ANYTHING, can have positive effects on their wellbeing -e.g.meal times
-people in situations where they have little control over their environment experience negative health and mental health consequences


What is an observer more focused on?

the actor/model


What is an actor/model more focused on?



What are some examples of Self-serving bias in real life?

1. Lau and Russel (1980) analysis of sports pages in USA
-80% of statements made by try winners were internal attributions (fitness, training routines)
-53% of the losers gave internal attributions (blame ref, pitch, weather)
2. Self-serving bias helps to perpetuate discrimination (homeless people) - fault/failure is attributed to the persons, not the circumstances-we don't know what happened to this person before, but we still discriminate
-once the self serving bias shapes how you view the person, you are even more likely to ignore the context of future behaviours