Flashcards in Tutorial 2. Deck (47):
What is the definition of intoxication?
Alteration in brain function brought by DRUG use
What is the definition of withdrawal?
alteration in brain function about by the CESSATION of drug use
What is the definition of tolerance?
Need total more of a psychoactive drug in order to produce the same effect
What is the definition of Dependance/Addition?
Cluster of cognitive, behavioural and physiological symptoms that indicate severe impairment and distress due to the persons drug use
Important to consider addiction within a biopsychosocial context
Person needs drug to function normally
Includes psychologically, physiological and social components
What are stimulants?
Drugs that INCREASE arousal and speed up mental and physical activity
May cause euphoria (really happy)
Increased glutamate, decreased GABA
What are examples of stimulants?
What are depressants?
Drugs that reduce awareness of external stimuli and slow down bodily functions
Decreased Glutamate, Increased GABA
What are examples of depressants?
Benzodiazepines (e.g. valium)
Date rate drugs (issues with memory, lead to amnesia)
What are hallucinogens?
Drugs that alter the perceptions of the external and inner awareness (may produce hallucinations - usually visual)
What are examples of hallucinogens?
Cannabis/Marijuana (THC: Tetra Hydo Cannabinol)
LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide)
What are Opiates?
Drugs that suppress physical sensation and response to stimulation
Ideal for pain relief
Withdrawal cause, physical pain, insomnia
What are examples of Opiates?
Heroin(highly addictive and people trying to withdraw experience harsh physical symptoms)
Includes Prescription opiates which can also be abused - Uni settings Ritalin= prescription for ADHD
How do psychoactive drugs affect the brain?
Psychoactive drugs contain chemicals that affect brain activity and consciousness
Drug affect "pleasure centres" via reward pathway;
they activate areas in the forebrain that receive input from the limbic system relating to mood and emotion
Ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex (major structures in the reward pathway)
What are psychoactive drugs?
drugs are chemicals that affect mental processing and behaviour and temporarily changing conscious awareness
- once in the brain, the chemicals attach themselves to synaptic receptors and either block or stimulate certain reactions
- they affects perception, memory, mood and behaviour
What are the structures of reward pathways?
1. Rewarding stimulus is administered
2. Info travels to the Ventral Tegmental area (VTA)
3. Nucleus Accumbent is affected
4. Prefrontal cortex is stimulated (e.g. personality, decision making)
What affect does Ecstasy have?
-affects neurotransmitter SEROTONIN
May alter mood, memory, sleep
"Party drug" (joint effects with alcohol on the brain"
What affect does Cocaine have?
-affects neurotransmitter DOPAMINE
Contrast between Euphoric highs and very depressive lows
What is the Reward Pathway of cocaine?
Affects the Caudate Nucleus
Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA)
With continued use it becomes very difficult to activate the NE without cocaine (so natural rewards such as food, water, music, sex are no longer pleasurable)
What affect does Alcohol have?
Depresses functioning of the nervous system
Inhibits/depresses nerve impulses to the CNS
Long term effects of heavy use include: Tolerance, Dependance, Lesions in the brain which produce Dementia and Amnesia
has a Wide range of affects of body, mind and entire environment we live in
What is BAC?
Blood Alcohol Concentration
The concentration of alcohol in blood
Measured: Number of Milligrams of alcohol (msg) per 100 millilitres (mL) of blood
Intoxication from approximately 0.06-0.1 milligrams of alcohol, per 100 millilitres of blood
What is the Legal driving Limit in NZ?
0.05 mg/100mL of blood
What are the observable affects of having a BAC of 0.02?
Slight body warmth
What are the observable affects of having a BAC of 0.05?
Slowed reaction time
What are the observable affects of having a BAC of 0.1?
What are the observable affects of having a BAC of 0.2?
What are the observable affects of having a BAC of 0.3?
May pass out
Cool Body temperature
What are the observable affects of having a BAC of 0.40?
What are the observable affects of having a BAC of 0.5 and greater?
What are the affect of Hallucinogens?
THC: Tetra Hydro Cannabinol - active ingredient of marijuana
Drug effect is usually visual hallucinations (false perceptions)
-Perceptions may be altered
-Euphoria in some cases
What is the Reward Pathway of Tetra Hydro Cannabinol?
Cerebellum (co-ordination and balance)
Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA)
Caudate Nucleus (learning and memory)
Prefrontal cortex (emotion and behaviour)
How do opiate work?
Opiates bind to the SAME RECEPTOR as the Endorphins and generate powerful affects on mood, pain and pleasure
Heroin is highly addictive and people trying to withdraw experience harsh physical symptoms
What is the reward pathway of opiates?
Ventral Tegmental area (VTA)
What is the drug use (alcohol) in NZ like?
Youth 12 study:
57%: students who have never tried alcohol
45%: students currently use alcohol
8%: drink Weekly or more frequently
23%: reported having engaged in binge drinking (5 or more within 4 hours) in the last four weeks
What is the drug use (cannabis) in NZ like?
Youth 12 study
23%: student Have used marijuana
17%: currently use marijuana
3%: use marijuana weekly or more often
What is the drug use ("other drugs") in NZ like?
Youth 12 study
4%: Party pills ever used
3%: Ecstasy ever used
Less than 1% : P ever used once
What is the drug us (cigarettes) in NZ like?
Youth 12 study
On the way Down
11%:currently smoke cigarettes atlas occasionally
almost 5%: smoking weekly or more often
How much is a standard drink?
Can of beer: 1
100ml glass of wine: 1
175ml spirits: 2.1
750ml bottle of wine: 7.7
1L bottle of spirits: 37
3 L cask of wine: 30
How would you consider alcohol use in a health care context?
Alcohol is the Most Commonly Abused drug
Wide Ranging effects on individuals body, behaviour and private/professional life
Difficult to reduce/abstain because alcohol is socially acceptable/part of our culture
Addiction (dependence) consists of cognitive, behavioural and physiological symptoms
Health Practitioners are encourages to screen for risky alcohol use and support their patients efforts to reduce harmful use of alcohol
As a health practitioner, how would you help a patient who makes an appointment after an A&E appointment which required several stitches to his arm, when he was heavily intoxicated and required medical treatment for alcohol poisoning?
Be aware of their mood: Will he hit if use a needle? Sad? angry? Police waiting outside?
Prior to ask them to fill out questionnaire - self awareness - or discuss results in session
Consider social inputs and affects on - family, relationships
DONT want to preach, or say is bad, or label
Could lead to total avoidance of the doctor which is an adverse outcome altogether
DO want to inform and educate them
Support Getting and Support Giving
Suggest to Come back in and see if the stitches "were infected", so you can discuss/mention then
Look out for Confounding Factors like Stress, bar fights, BEFORE season "you have a problem"
How do the active ingredients of Cannabis work?
Cannabinoids already exist in our brian
Decreases the Refractory periods of the impasse
Leads to Enhancement
What are the positives of Psychoactive drug consumption?
Feel good - serotonin
Relaxation (alcohol, nicotine)
Energy/Wake up (caffeine)
What is our bodies natural analgesic?
What are the negatives of Psychoactive drug consumption?
Dependance (biopsyhcosocial model)
Social persona negative(e.g. slurring on first date due to intoxication)
Social exclusion (smoking)
What psychoactive drugs can you be addicted to?
High Adrenalin Sports
What sort of pathway do Psychoactive drugs take?
A very specific pathway
Rates will only repeatedly administer cocaine if it is sent to the very specific areas of the brain
What is the role of the Caudate uncle?
This is what causes the scratching and nail biting of heroin addicts