Tutorial 2. Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Tutorial 2. Deck (47):
1

What is the definition of intoxication?

Alteration in brain function brought by DRUG use

2

What is the definition of withdrawal?

alteration in brain function about by the CESSATION of drug use

3

What is the definition of tolerance?

Need total more of a psychoactive drug in order to produce the same effect

4

What is the definition of Dependance/Addition?

Cluster of cognitive, behavioural and physiological symptoms that indicate severe impairment and distress due to the persons drug use
Important to consider addiction within a biopsychosocial context
Person needs drug to function normally
Includes psychologically, physiological and social components

5

What are stimulants?

Drugs that INCREASE arousal and speed up mental and physical activity
May cause euphoria (really happy)
Increased glutamate, decreased GABA

6

What are examples of stimulants?

Amphetamines
Methamphetamines (P)
MDMA (ecstacy)
Cocaine
Nicotine
Caffeine (nodose)

7

What are depressants?

Drugs that reduce awareness of external stimuli and slow down bodily functions
Decreased Glutamate, Increased GABA

8

What are examples of depressants?

Alcohol
Benzodiazepines (e.g. valium)

Anxiety pills
Sleeping pills
Date rate drugs (issues with memory, lead to amnesia)

9

What are hallucinogens?

Drugs that alter the perceptions of the external and inner awareness (may produce hallucinations - usually visual)

10

What are examples of hallucinogens?

Cannabis/Marijuana (THC: Tetra Hydo Cannabinol)
LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide)

11

What are Opiates?

Drugs that suppress physical sensation and response to stimulation
Ideal for pain relief
Prescription problems
Withdrawal cause, physical pain, insomnia

12

What are examples of Opiates?

Morphine
Heroin(highly addictive and people trying to withdraw experience harsh physical symptoms)
Homebake
Includes Prescription opiates which can also be abused - Uni settings Ritalin= prescription for ADHD

13

How do psychoactive drugs affect the brain?

Psychoactive drugs contain chemicals that affect brain activity and consciousness
Drug affect "pleasure centres" via reward pathway;
they activate areas in the forebrain that receive input from the limbic system relating to mood and emotion
Ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex (major structures in the reward pathway)

14

What are psychoactive drugs?

drugs are chemicals that affect mental processing and behaviour and temporarily changing conscious awareness
- once in the brain, the chemicals attach themselves to synaptic receptors and either block or stimulate certain reactions
- they affects perception, memory, mood and behaviour

15

What are the structures of reward pathways?

1. Rewarding stimulus is administered
2. Info travels to the Ventral Tegmental area (VTA)
3. Nucleus Accumbent is affected
4. Prefrontal cortex is stimulated (e.g. personality, decision making)

16

What affect does Ecstasy have?

Stimulant
-affects neurotransmitter SEROTONIN
May alter mood, memory, sleep
"Party drug" (joint effects with alcohol on the brain"

17

What affect does Cocaine have?

Stimulant
-affects neurotransmitter DOPAMINE
Contrast between Euphoric highs and very depressive lows

18

What is the Reward Pathway of cocaine?

Affects the Caudate Nucleus
Nucleus Accumbens
Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA)
With continued use it becomes very difficult to activate the NE without cocaine (so natural rewards such as food, water, music, sex are no longer pleasurable)

19

What affect does Alcohol have?

Depressant
Depresses functioning of the nervous system
Inhibits/depresses nerve impulses to the CNS
Long term effects of heavy use include: Tolerance, Dependance, Lesions in the brain which produce Dementia and Amnesia
has a Wide range of affects of body, mind and entire environment we live in

20

What is BAC?

Blood Alcohol Concentration
The concentration of alcohol in blood
Measured: Number of Milligrams of alcohol (msg) per 100 millilitres (mL) of blood
Intoxication from approximately 0.06-0.1 milligrams of alcohol, per 100 millilitres of blood

21

What is the Legal driving Limit in NZ?

0.05 mg/100mL of blood

22

What are the observable affects of having a BAC of 0.02?

Relaxation,
Slight body warmth

23

What are the observable affects of having a BAC of 0.05?

Sedation,
Slowed reaction time

24

What are the observable affects of having a BAC of 0.1?

Slurred speech
Poor Co-ordination
Slowed thinking

25

What are the observable affects of having a BAC of 0.2?

Trouble walking
Double vision
Nausea
Vomiting

26

What are the observable affects of having a BAC of 0.3?

May pass out
Tremors
Memory loss
Cool Body temperature

27

What are the observable affects of having a BAC of 0.40?

Trouble breathing
Coma
Possible death

28

What are the observable affects of having a BAC of 0.5 and greater?

Death

29

What are the affect of Hallucinogens?

THC: Tetra Hydro Cannabinol - active ingredient of marijuana
Drug effect is usually visual hallucinations (false perceptions)
-Perceptions may be altered
-Euphoria in some cases

30

What is the Reward Pathway of Tetra Hydro Cannabinol?

Hippocampus (memory)
Cerebellum (co-ordination and balance)
Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA)
Nucleus accumbens
Caudate Nucleus (learning and memory)
Prefrontal cortex (emotion and behaviour)

31

How do opiate work?

Opiates bind to the SAME RECEPTOR as the Endorphins and generate powerful affects on mood, pain and pleasure
Heroin is highly addictive and people trying to withdraw experience harsh physical symptoms

32

What is the reward pathway of opiates?

Prefrontal cortex
Caudate Nucleus
Thalamus
Nucleus Accumbens
Ventral Tegmental area (VTA)

33

What is the drug use (alcohol) in NZ like?

Youth 12 study:
57%: students who have never tried alcohol
45%: students currently use alcohol
8%: drink Weekly or more frequently
23%: reported having engaged in binge drinking (5 or more within 4 hours) in the last four weeks

34

What is the drug use (cannabis) in NZ like?

Youth 12 study
23%: student Have used marijuana
17%: currently use marijuana
3%: use marijuana weekly or more often

35

What is the drug use ("other drugs") in NZ like?

Youth 12 study
4%: Party pills ever used
3%: Ecstasy ever used
Less than 1% : P ever used once

36

What is the drug us (cigarettes) in NZ like?

Youth 12 study
On the way Down
11%:currently smoke cigarettes atlas occasionally
almost 5%: smoking weekly or more often

37

How much is a standard drink?

Can of beer: 1
100ml glass of wine: 1
175ml spirits: 2.1
750ml bottle of wine: 7.7
1L bottle of spirits: 37
3 L cask of wine: 30

38

How would you consider alcohol use in a health care context?

Alcohol is the Most Commonly Abused drug
Wide Ranging effects on individuals body, behaviour and private/professional life
Difficult to reduce/abstain because alcohol is socially acceptable/part of our culture
Addiction (dependence) consists of cognitive, behavioural and physiological symptoms
Health Practitioners are encourages to screen for risky alcohol use and support their patients efforts to reduce harmful use of alcohol

39

As a health practitioner, how would you help a patient who makes an appointment after an A&E appointment which required several stitches to his arm, when he was heavily intoxicated and required medical treatment for alcohol poisoning?

Be aware of their mood: Will he hit if use a needle? Sad? angry? Police waiting outside?
Prior to ask them to fill out questionnaire - self awareness - or discuss results in session
Consider social inputs and affects on - family, relationships
DONT want to preach, or say is bad, or label
Could lead to total avoidance of the doctor which is an adverse outcome altogether
DO want to inform and educate them
Support Getting and Support Giving
Suggest to Come back in and see if the stitches "were infected", so you can discuss/mention then
Look out for Confounding Factors like Stress, bar fights, BEFORE season "you have a problem"

40

How do the active ingredients of Cannabis work?

Cannabinoids already exist in our brian
Anambinoids
Decreases the Refractory periods of the impasse
Leads to Enhancement

41

What are the positives of Psychoactive drug consumption?

Feel good - serotonin
Social Interaction
Relaxation (alcohol, nicotine)
Energy/Wake up (caffeine)
Pain relief
Medical Uses

42

What is our bodies natural analgesic?

Endorphins

43

What are the negatives of Psychoactive drug consumption?

Addiction
Dependance (biopsyhcosocial model)
Social persona negative(e.g. slurring on first date due to intoxication)
Health issues/risks
Social exclusion (smoking)
Cost

44

What psychoactive drugs can you be addicted to?

Gambling
Food
Tattoos
Fitness Regimes
Video games
High Adrenalin Sports

45

What sort of pathway do Psychoactive drugs take?

A very specific pathway
Limbic system
page 75.
Rates will only repeatedly administer cocaine if it is sent to the very specific areas of the brain

46

What is the role of the Caudate uncle?

Co-ordinates movement
This is what causes the scratching and nail biting of heroin addicts

47

What can add to the affect of alcohol, and affect how fast you change between levels/states of intoxications?

Food
Combinations with other drugs
Strength of the alcohol
Gender tolerance/variability
Age
Experience (immunity/tolerance due to past experience)