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What does r represent?

Correlation coefficient
Measures the extent to which 2 variables are related
-1 (strong neg.) +1 (strong pos.)
0= no relationship
Strong positive Rel= both increasing
Strong Neg Relationship = one increasing and one decreasing


What is Correlation Research?

To correlate 2 variables is to assess the extent to which being high or low on one measure predicts being high or low on the other


What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Correlation Research?

1. Able to study Multiple Influences operating in Natural Settings (observe without altering)
2. Can study issues that cannot be examined experimentally (no ethics problems as natural occurring)

1. Correlation doesn't equal causation. With correlation you Cannot make Causal Claims (media manipulates this)
2. Don't have to control your variables (some other variable explaining the relationship)


What is Experimental Research?

A researcher manipulates or alters some aspect of the environment in order to see what effect this has on behaviour
Use Independant (IV) and Dependant (DV) Variable
Can make causal claims (shows impact without and with variable)
Involves assignment and controlled manipulation


What is the Independent Variable?

is manipulated by the researcher


What is the Dependant Variable?

is the response the experimenter measures to see if the experimental manipulation (IV) had an effect


What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Experimental Research?

1. Can establish a cause and effect relation (causal relationship)
2. Can control Variables
3. Experiments can be replicated or repeated to see if the same findings emerge

1. expensive
2. Involves random assignment and controlled manipulation
(males may be different from females) (smokers different to non smokers)
a. hard to get more people
b. have to think about more variables
c. time consuming but necessary
3. Control might be artificial (doesn't replicate real environment, and loses real world applicability)


What are the 4 Ethical Issues involved in Experimental Research?

1. Informed Consent
2. Confidentiality
3. Children as Participants
4. Deception and Debriefing


What does the Ethical Issue of Informed Consent in Experimental Research involve?

a. important to inform potential participants of all aspects of the research so they can make a voluntary decision based on knowledge of what the research involves
b. participants need to be made aware that they can draw from the research at any time
(given letter (stages, how long, payment, date of withdrawal, confidentiality methods, components of experiment, emotional support contacts, ability to report) + consent form)


What does the Ethical Issue of Confidentiality in Experimental Research involve?

a. Researchers also have an ethical obligation to keep confidential the information they collect
- disclosing participants names and personal details
- keeping questionnaires and data files secure


What does the Ethical Issue of having children as Participants in Experimental Research involve?

a. Vulnerable participants
b. Not able to give informed consent
(use simpler terms)(2x forms= parent and child)
c. Need to obtain informed consent from child (if possible) and someone who can act on their behalf (parent or guardian)
NZ= 16yrs+ legally able give conformed consent
14-15= you can request special consent or have a notice sent out to parents, providing opportunity to opt out, child still has overall say


What doe the Ethical Issue of Deception and Debriefing in Experimental Research involve?

a. It may be necessary to conduct research without fully explaining its true purpose to participants before the study starts
b. If there is an element of deception in your research design, it is important that debriefing takes place afterwards - explaining the true purpose of the study
c. For debriefing, - may need to provide extra support for participants, -contact number if they have further questions in the future

Deception is useful at times (liquid ass study)
Deception is a difficult/Grey area in medical practice


What can be components of a poorly conducted study?

Low study numbers
Uneven Gender Proportions
Selection Bias (willing vs non willing to volunteer are BOTH important)
No Informed Consent Form signed
No debriefing
Not generalisable to the average population (med students vs. av. population)
Different baseline
No time for substance (chocolate) to truly have effect
Poorly controlled (may have had more chocolate recently)
Poor consideration of Ethics (asked certain males/people to participate)
Participants Switching groups


What do you consider when reviewing/evaluating a study?

Results - what do they mean
Method - What was done well and wasn't done well
Ethics? - Do we need to debrief?