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Flashcards in Lecture 11 Deck (89):
1

What are the three processes of Memory?

1. Encoding (put into memory) -->
2. Storage (hold in memory) -->
3. Retrieval (recover from memory)
-flow of information out and flow of information in are both important
-not just revision, a lot of processes and capacities in our mind rely and interact on our memory

2

What is the Encoding process in Memory?

Getting information into the memory
Form mental Representation- that aren't currently present
Paying attention is key - in order to receive and encode info -focusing our awareness and -filtering information around us (otherwise world would be chaotic- convo in loud cafe in bar, and would be impossible to concentrate)- attention also key in perception
Attending to something also implies a state of arousal-too tired or disinterested will lead to failing to encoding information and wont remember it (need to pay attention)
- Too much anxiety or arousal will also impact out memory (stress and memory)
-Key cognitive ability
-need to be able to preserve features of our environment or events in order to retrieve them later
-pre-operational phase where children are bale to begin encoding information via symbolic thought - clear mental representations that aren't currently present
-infantile amnesia

3

What do the Levels of processing mean?

Incoming information processed at different levels - impacts memory
Deeper processing = longer lasting memory codes
simplistic model, good starting place thinking about different memory levels and different levels of processing
Encoding levels - Structural, Phonemic, Semantic
-can have a huge impact on the quality of your study- how deep things are embedded in memory and likely hood to stay in memory and able to be retrieved for later

4

What happens when Deeper processing occurs?

longer lasting memory codes

5

What are the three encoding levels of processing?

Structural = shallow =shortest memory code = GOUT(see in capitals)
Phonemic = intermediate = GOUT rhymes with SHOUT
Semantic = deep = thinking about meaning of information = Gout represents a medical condition which represents acute inflammatory arthritis= understand and encode at a deeper level

6

What is the relationship of retention at 3 levels of processing?

Linear increase in the number of words recognised as the depth of processing went from (structural encoding) --> (phonemic encoding) --> (semantic encoding)
POSTIVE association between the variable
progressively deeper levels of encoding led to progressively better levels of memory and retention

7

What is the Storage process in Memory?

Maintaining information in memory - and keeping the information there over time
Analogy: Information storage in computers -Encoding=typing on the keyboard, Storing= info onto hard drive, Retrieving= bringing back up on the screen
Information processing theories
-Subdivide memory into 3 different stores:
-Sensory , short term, longterm

8

What are the 3 different stores Memory storage is subdivided into, as proposed by the information storage theory?

Sensory memory --> Working memory (includes short-term memory) -->

9

What is Sensory Memory and an example?

Very brief memory of a sensory experience
(sparkler/firesparkler)-makes appear continuous line
-Visual sensory memory (the icon(iconic))
Auditory sensory memory (the echo)
Probably others as well -research less clear
-very large capacity
-very short duration
--about 1/2 a second for icon
- about 1-2 seconds for echo(before disappeared)

10

What is the Visual sensory Memory?

The icon
Very brief memory of the icon
very large capacity
very short duration - about 1/2 second for icon

11

What is the Auditory sensory memory?

The echo
Very brief memory of the echo
Very large capacity
very short duration - about 1-2 seconds for echo

12

What are the 4 aspects of STM Short Term Memory?

1. Capacity = Limited : 7 +/- 2 chunks
2. Chunk =meaningful unit (e.g. single letter (S); group of letters (ACC); group of words (four score and seven years ago)
3. Duration (20-30sec)= Limited capacity and interference
ACTIVE process= requires our Focus
4. Encoding tends to be Acoustic - Maintenance rehearsal

13

What is the Capacity aspect of Short Term Memory?

Limited
7 +/- 2 chunks

14

What is the Chunk aspect of Short Term Memory?

chunk = is a Meaningful Unit
-e.g. single letter (S)
groups of letters (ACC)
group of words (four score and seven years ago)

15

What is the Duration aspect of Short Term Memory?

20-30 seconds
-Limited capacity and interference

16

What is the Encoding aspect of Short Term Memory?

Encoding tends to be ACOUSTIC
-maintenance rehearsal

17

What are the features of the Short-Term Memory: Working Memory view model?

Developed by Baddeley
-Helps to reinforce that the short term memory is not a place, but is an active process that we are doing
Information --> rehearsal --> Long term memory
Auditory rehearsal (phonological loop and storage of maintenance of variable items) and Visual-spatial scratch pad (temporary 20-30 sec image which we can manipulate) down on-top of Executive (control attention, flow info processing, allows higher order information processing-reasoning, problem solving)
-both are subject to interference
some decay out bottom
Contains all 4 aspects of STM:
-has limtied capacity
-has 7 items plus or minus two

18

What Long-Term Memory LTM section in Memory?

-Have the capacity for Potentially long duration (decades)
-Huge capacity
--Past experiences and events
-- Thoughts and feelings
-- Skills and abilities
-- Identity and sense of self
(this forms our total knowledge, and form an integral part of our being-having and keeping these LTM)
-begs to question whether there are different types of memory systems or different ways of storing different types of information

19

What are the four sections which are of huge capacity in LTM?

1. Past experience and events
2. Thoughts and feelings
3. Skills and abilities
4. Identity and sense of self

20

What are the 3 ways which cause Long Term Memory (LTM) to change?

1. Anatomical change
2. Engram
3. Patients with brain injury/surgery tell us about link between brain structure and function

21

What is the impact of anatomical change which causes Long Term Memory (LTM) to change?

Memory trace may reflect alterations in neurotransmitter release at specific sites

22

What is the impact of Engram which causes Long Term Memory (LTM) to change?

physical memory trace of info in brain

23

What is the impact of patients with brain injury/surgery who tell us about link between brain structure and function, which causes Long Term Memory (LTM) to change?

Famous surgery patient, H.M.- suffered very severe epileptic seizures
1950s surgery, death in 2008
surgery -was succesful in the regard of reducing seizures
But now No new LTM capacity but working memory intact-cannot put any new events into their explicit memory-now lives in short term memory span of 20-30 seconds
-working memory was largely intact, as well as prior memories, and could form new LT PROCEDURAL memories
-therefore was able to learn how to do new things, but is unable to remember how and when it was he came to learn it
Tells us about which brain structures involved in different aspects of memory (memory functions)

24

What are the 7 brain structures involved in memory?

1. Thalamus - implicated inhabit information
2. Striatum - implicated inhabit information
3. Pre-frontal Cortex(cerebral cortex) - sensory memory, -largest part of the brain, outer surface
4. amygdala-part of the limbic system-central to formation and storage of emotion and emotional states info
5. Hippocampus- central role information of declarative (facts) memory and consolidation of memory- part of limbic system
6. Brain stem
7. Cerebellum-procedural memory- for skills and abilities, knowing HOW to do things

25

What are the 4 different types of memory systems?

1. Explicit memory - Deliberate attempt to remember
2. Implicit memory - Exhibited on a task that does not require intentional remembering
3. Declarative memory "knowing that"
4. Procedural memory "knowing how"

26

What is Explicit memory?

Deliberate attempt to remember
what we usually think of as memory

27

What is Implicit memory?

Exhibited on a task that does not require intentional remembering
-without conscious attention of effort
-not great for studying
-e.g. being able to remember waitresses outfit when going to resteraunt

28

What is Declarative memory?

"knowing that"
memory for facts and events
"knowing what a bicycle is"

29

What is Procedural memory?

"knowing how"
-not so consciously accessible
-responsible for all our SKILLS
-these skills are Both MOTOR and COGNITIVE
(visual puzzle)
"knowing how to ride a bike"

30

What are the 5 dimensions of LTM Long Term Memory?

1. Long term memory -->
A. Declarative memory (memory for facts and events) B. Procedural memory (Memory for how to do things)
Aa. Episodic memory (Recollections of specific personal experiences) Ab. Semantic memory (General knowledge)

31

What is Episodic memory?

Recollections of specific personal experiences
-know we have experienced something before
-require cues about the context in which the memory was encoded
"have i ever had an injection before and when,why,where was it"-piecing together context to provide retrieval cues

32

What is Semantic memory?

General knowledge
-meanings of words and concepts
-allows us to make cognitive representations/mental models of the world around us
-doesn't need retrieval cues about the context in order to have that semantic memory - don't need to know where you were when you learnt what asthma was, more important to know about symptoms, aetiology or disease course- instead need the MEANINGS, the FACTS and the FIGURES

33

What is the Encoding in LTM Long Term Memory?

Tends to be Semantic or Episodic - encoded by meaning at a deeper level
Can be acoustic, verbal or visual
Enhanced by:
1. Elaborative rehearsal
2. Visual imagery
3. Self-referential encoding
4. Encoding specificity

34

What are the 4 things that enhance encoding in LTM long term memory?

1. Elaborative rehearsal
2. Visual imagery
3. Self- referential encoding
4. Encoding specificity

35

What are the 3 ways of retrieval in LTM Long Term Memory?

1. Recall
2. Recognition
3. Reconstruction - piecing memory together from a few highlights then filling in details based on what we think should have happened

Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

36

What is the Reconstruction aspect of retrieval in LTM Long Term Memory?

Piecing memory together from a few highlights then filling in details based on what we think should have happened
-open to alot of human errors
-eye witness testability
-post test suggestibility
-the effect of miss information on eye witness testomony

37

Relationships of Recognition vs Recall in retention?

Lou
has subjects memorise lists of nonsense words and measured their retention over periods of time
sharp decline of in recall
recognition yielded much higher levels of retention over time
Recognition > Recall

38

What are the 4 factors which effect LTM retrieval?

1. Serial position
2. Environmental context/state dependence
3. Stress and anxiety
4. Flashbulb memories

39

What is the Serial position curve?

position of info - when given a lot of information at one, the info given at the start or the end remembered better than info presented in the middle
Primacy effect-the first items presented are remembered better than those presented in the middle - perhaps because had more time to go through the rehearsal loop(STM-->LTM)
Recently effect- the items presented at the end of the consultation/list will be remembered better than those in the middle- possibly because they are still in your short term memory OR have an ability to rehearse them/info stopped so have time to get it into your memory
-clinical setting- giving patients lots of info at once, so clinicians present the most important information first and last, or reiterate important info at beginning and end of consultation

40

What is the Environmental Context/state dependence factor which affects LTM retrieval?

Relates to Encoding Specificity
-important for retrieval
-The Context becomes encoded along with the material being remembered(the info itself)
-physiological state can become embedded in memory
Reinstating context often increases memory - context cues
context cues aids memory and retrieval
Internal body states can be encoded with memories - Memories are easier to retrieve when these body states are entered again (happiness or sadness)
Episodic memories- using enviro cues to remember event (getting an injection)
Return to somewhere you haven't been in a long time and are flooded with memories - embedded within that environmental context
Memory reformation with alcohol- same internal state (intoxicated) recall was better than if in sober state: better if in same state at both points rather than intoxicated or sober at different points

41

What is the Internal body states aspect of Environmental Context/state dependence factor which affects LTM retrieval?

Internal body states can be encoded with memories
-Memories are easier to retrieve when these body states are entered again
e.g. Memory reformation with alcohol- same internal state (intoxicated) recall was better than if in sober state: better if in same state at both points rather than intoxicated or sober at different points

42

What is the relationship between stress/anxiety and memory?

-aware as health professionals
-health care setting itself can be stressful for both the patient and clinician too
-importance of noting a patients emotional state before giving important information (given diagnosis, wont remember treatment plan, need time to calm down and listen to concerns)
-attention integral for memory reformation
NON-linear relationship- inverse U shaped curve
Low stress= poor memory performance = low levels of attention/arousal
Moderate stress = Hight/peak memory performance
High stress = poor memory performance = high levels of attention/arousal

43

What are Flash bulb memories?

Strong, vivid (usually visual) and Detailed memories of dramatic events
During events when particularly Emotionally charged
-during big dramatic public events (Chch earthquake or 9/11) remember exactly where they were when they found out that

44

What are the two rates of Forgetting?

Rate of forgetting:
1. Fastest right after initial learning-due to ineffective coding
2. Slower for more meaningful material-deeper processing and elaboration meaning
"Facts crammed at examination time soon vanish, if they are not sufficiently grounded by other study and later subjected to sufficient review"

45

What are the 5 possible causes of Forgetting?

Multiple points
1. Failure to encode
2. Decay
3. Interference
4. Retrieval failure
5. Motivated forgetting

46

What is the Failure to encode cause of forgetting?

Failing to effectively put material into LTM to start with (failures/ineffective encoding)-due to things like lack of attention
Common in forgetting people's names

47

What is the Decay cause of forgetting?

-relates to impermanence of memory storage
Memory trace fades over time

48

What is the Interference cause of forgetting?

Confusion or entanglement of similar memories (interference of other similar material)
1. Proactive interference
2. Retroactive interference

49

What are the two types of memory interference which cause forgetting?

1. Proactive interference
2. retroactive interference

50

What is Pro active memory interference which causes forgetting?

Information learned previously --interferes with --> Information being learned currently
-get a new number, old number will be constantly proactively interfering

51

What is Retro-active memory interference which causes forgetting?

Information being learned currently --Interferes with --> Information learned previously
-cant remember old number any more

52

What is the Retrieval failure cause of forgetting?

Inability to find the necessary memory cue for retrieval (sometime temporary)
-most present with the Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
-mis match between where the memory was encoded and where you're trying to retrieve it
-Wncoding specificitiy: remembering class mates name when in lecture hall but not in park

53

What is the Motivated forgetting cause of forgetting?

Fraud
-Tendency to forget the things we don't want to think about
-feelings or emotions buried in the unconscious
Repression of memories, usually to avoid ealing with traumatic experiences

54

What is amnesia?

The failure of memory over a prolonged period
Caused by
a. physical injury
b. disease
c. drug use
d. trauma
Two types of Amnesia:
1. Retrograde amnesia
2. Anterograde amnesia

55

What are the 4 potential causes of amnesia?

1. Physical injury
2. Disease
3. Drug use
4. Trauma

56

What are the 2 types of Amnesia?

1. Retrograde amnesia
2. Anterograde amnesia

57

What is Retrograde amnesia?

Memory loss --> onset of amnesia --->

The loss of memory prior to the damage
-severe blow to head and cant remmeber the events preceding then

58

What is Anterograde amnesia?

---> Onset of amnesia ---> Memory loss -->
Loss of memory/ability to form new memories of events that occur subsequent to the damage (after the event)

59

What does the structural encoding levels of processing involve?

Structural = shallow =shortest memory code = GOUT(see in capitals)

60

What does the Phonemic encoding levels of processing involve?

Phonemic = intermediate = GOUT rhymes with SHOUT

61

What does the Semantic encoding levels of processing involve?

Semantic = deep = thinking about meaning of information = Gout represents a medical condition which represents acute inflammatory arthritis= understand and encode at a deeper level

62

What is the computer analogy with regards to the three main stages of memory processing?

Analogy: Information storage in computers
-Encoding=typing on the keyboard,
-Storing= info onto hard drive,
-Retrieving= bringing back up on the screen

63

What has been used to measure the capacity of our STM Short Term Memory?

Memory scan test have been used to measure the capacity of our STM Short Term Memory
-George miller magical number 7 plus or minus 2

64

What is maintenance rehearsal?

Repeating over and over in a phonological order
Interference will disrupt that loop and may result in loss from your short term memory STM

65

What do short term memory exercises show?

A lot of memory gets encoded in our short term memory and then disappears easily

66

What does the STM working memory view model help to reinforce?

-Helps to reinforce that the short term memory is not a place, but is an active process that we are doing

67

What does the Auditory rehearsal section of the STM Working Memory View Model involve?

Auditory rehearsal (phonological loop and storage of maintenance of variable items)
subject to interference
influenced by the Executive
Contains all 4 aspects of STM:
-has limtied capacity
-has 7 items plus or minus two

68

What does the Visual Spatial scratch pad section of the STM Working Memory View Model involve?

Visual-spatial scratch pad (temporary 20-30 sec image which we can manipulate)
subject to interference
influenced by the Executive
Contains all 4 aspects of STM:
-has limtied capacity
-has 7 items plus or minus two

69

What does the Executive section of the STM Working Memory View Model involve?

Executive (control attention, flow info processing, allows higher order information processing-reasoning, problem solving)
Some decay out the bottom

70

When given a set of 7 numbers, and then upon removal asked to add them what sensory processes are occurring?

Rehearsing numbers in phonological loop, repeating them over and over
Then using central executive, in order to manipulate those and do higher order processes such as doing a mathematical function

71

What is the role of the brain structure: "Thalamus" which is involved in memory?

1. Thalamus - implicated inhabit information

72

What is the role of the brain structure: "Striatum" which is involved in memory?

2. Striatum - implicated inhabit information

73

What is the role of the brain structure: "Pre-frontal cortex" which is involved in memory?

3. Pre-frontal Cortex(cerebral cortex) - sensory memory, -largest part of the brain, outer surface

74

What is the role of the brain structure: "Amygdala " which is involved in memory?

4. amygdala-part of the limbic system-central to formation and storage of emotion and emotional states info

75

What is the role of the brain structure: "Hippocampus" which is involved in memory?

5. Hippocampus- central role information of declarative (facts) memory and consolidation of memory- part of limbic system

76

What is the role of the brain structure: "Cerebellum" which is involved in memory?

7. Cerebellum-procedural memory- for skills and abilities, knowing HOW to do things

77

What is the difference between the two memory systems (Explicit and Implicit) vs (Declarative and Procedural)?

Different dimensions of memory systems
(Explicit and Implicit) -different types of encoding
(Declarative and Procedural)- memory systems for different types of information

78

What does the memory system of Explicit and Implicit memory involve?

Memory for different types of Encoding
(not different types of information)

79

What does the memory system of Declarative and Procedural memory involve?

Memory for different types of Information
(not different types of encoding)

80

Why may you not remember declarative memory but will remember procedural memory?

May NOT remember the declarative facts about when it was that you learnt about a skill
Due to it going through to your procedural memory DUE TO PRACTICE

81

How is declarative memory further developed?

Declarative memory is further developed through the dimensions of Episodic and Semantic memory
these relate to the cues to get the memories out of the long term memory

82

What is the distinguishing feature between episodic memory and semantic memory?

Episodic memory has retrieval cues to try and piece together the previous experience
-Semantic DOESNT have these retrieval cues

83

What is visual imagery re encoding into LTM?

attach visual image to verbal memory
additional memory code
-increased chance of getting the memory into the LTM store (2 codes are better than one)

84

What is elaboration re encoding into LTM?

what occurs while rehearsing it in the short term memory
enriching material
creating association that is PERSONALLY RELEVANT rather that something of arbitrary value
-new person, new name, think of a famous person in order to remember it"

85

What is self-referential encoding re encoding into LTM?

information relating to the self
preferentially encoded and stored and organised above other types of information

86

What is encoding specificity re encoding into LTM?

memory enhanced when the context your in when trying to retrieve the information MATCHES the context in which the information was encoded
both external environment and internal states (feeling)
-more likely to remember someones name if you are in the same situation as when you et them

87

What is recall re retrieval into LTM?

-recall specific parts of an experienceRecall is reproduction/generation of mental representation of the info or stimuli that is no longer present

88

What is recognition re retrieval into LTM?

simplest form of retrieval
-the stimulus itself provides ITS OWN retrieval cues-its already there so you can already recognise it
-MCQs rely on this recognition
--can be complicate if two of the pieces of information are similar, or having to manipulate/apply info to a scenario
When we notice the stimulus is similar or identical to something we have seen before

89

What is the Tip-of-the-Tongue phenomenon with regards to retrieval in LTM?

Temporary inability to remember something
accompanied y a feeling that is just outside your reach
-Failures in retrieval, possibly due to other pieces of information which are similar within your long term memory
-common inability to remember someones name
-more common as you get older