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Flashcards in Lecture 11 Deck (54):
1

What are the three rock types?

Igneous
Sedimentary
Metamorphic

2

What is igneous rock?

Rocks formed by solidification of molten magma. These can be found on the earths surface or under the surface

3

What are the two types of igneous rock?

Intrusive igneous rock: Rock inside or under the earths surface

Extrinsic igneous rock: rock formed on the outside of the earths surface

4

What is denudation?

Wearing down of a landmass that can expose an intrusive igneous rock

5

What is weathering?

The breakdown of rock by physical, chemical and biological ways

6

What do subduction zones do?

Bring rock back to the mantle

7

What are the four measures of geologic time?

Eons, eras, period and epochs

8

What is the order from longest to shortest geologic time measurements

Eons > eras > period > epoch

9

What is uniformitarianism?

Landforms on the earths surface are caused by slow geomorphic processes not sudden events

10

What is catastrophism?

Sudden events shaping modern landforms

11

True or False:
Catastrophism and uniformitarianism are very similar theories

False they are opposite

12

What theory is evolution based on?

Uniformitarianism

13

What is sedimentary rock?

Formed by the burial, compression and chemical modification of deposited weathered debris

14

What is a metamorphic rock?

Heat or pressure physically or chemically changing a rock.

15

What are rocks made up of?

Elements

16

What are the four types of igneous rock? And an example of each. And name one rock that is the exception

Felsic: granite
Mafic: basalt
Intermediate: andesite
Ultramafic: peridotite
Exception: obsidian

17

Give a two examples of sedimentary rocks.

Conglomerate and sandstone

18

What are two examples of metamorphic rock?

Slate and shale

19

What are the three layers of the earth?

core, mantle, crust

20

What two elements make up the earths core?

Iron and nickel

21

What defines the two sections of the earths core?

Inner core is solid
Outer core is liquid

22

What is the origin of all rocks?

Magma.

23

What differs the asthenosphere from the rest of the mantle?

It is the upper portion of the mantle that is made of more ridges rocks

24

What type of rock is the upper mantle made up off?

Ultramafic igneous rock

25

How does the lower mantle move?

As a hot plastic

26

What is the lithosphere?

Includes crust and upper most portion of the mantle and it glides over the rest of the mantle. This is the location where earthquakes volcanoes and continental drift.

27

What are the two types of crust?

Oceanic which is thinner and continental which is thicker

28

Define isostacy.

The rising and sinking of tectonic plates due to weight distributed on a point. Glaciers have this affect on tectonic plates making them sink, then in a delayed reaction once the ice melts the plates rebound.

29

What are four pieces of evidence supporting continental drift?

Fossils, paleoclimatic regions, puzzle piece fit, rock and mountain ranges.

30

What pushed the continents apart?

Oceanic ridges.

31

What is older continental crust or oceanic crust?

Continental crust, because oceanic crust moves quickly into subduction zones refreshing every 200 million years

32

Define a dyke.

Thin vertical veins of igneous rock that cool, lots of minerals

33

What is a sill?

Planes of solidified magma

34

Define batholith.

Plutonic masses of intrusive rock

35

What is a volcanic pipe?

Dyke reaching the surface

36

Name four crustal formation processes.

Dyke
Sill
Batholith
Volcanic pipe

37

Define a mountain.

An area of land that rises abruptly from the surrounding region. Mountains form in belts from hotspots. Some can be of volcanic origin or can form underwater

38

Name four types of folds.

Monocline: slight bend in parallel lines

Anticline: upward fold

Syncline: downward fold

Recumbent: folded centres turned horizontal

39

Name the four types of faults.

Normal, reverse, graben, Horst

40

What are the four models of landform development.

Structural landforms, weathering landforms, erosional landforms, depositional landforms.

41

What are structural landforms?

Created by large quantity hardening of magma or large movements due to plate tectonics

Examples: shield, fold mountains, rift valleys, volcanoes

42

How are weathering landforms created?

By physical, chemical and biological weathering

Examples: karst, patterned ground, soil profiles

43

How are erosional landforms created?

Formed by the removal of sediment by wind water and glaciers or gravity

Examples: river valleys, glacial valleys, costal cliffs

44

How are depositional landforms created?

Formed by deposited sediments, these can be altered by heat, pressure or chemicals

45

What is a polygenic landform?

When a landforms falls into multiple categories

46

What initially formed earths atmosphere?

Volcanic activity

47

True or False:
The earths core is magnetic.

True

48

What has the most volume, the core, the mantle or the crust?

Mantle

49

What are the three geological processes?

Solidification: igneous

Metamorphic: metamorphic

Lithification: sedimentary

50

Name the six geological provinces.

Shield
Platform
Orogen
Basin
Large igneous province
Extended continental crust

51

What are the three types of plate boundary?

Divergent
Convergent
Transform

52

What is a divergent plate boundary?

A constructive boundary where the plates move apart

53

What is a convergent plate boundary?

Destructive boundary where plates come together

54

What is a transform plate boundary?

Plates sliding past one another