Lecture 6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 6 Deck (33):
1

What percentage of the earths water is fresh?

3

2

What are four properties of water?

Polar molecule
High specific heat capacity
Universal solvent
Ice is less dense then water

3

True or false
Most of the hydrological process occurs over the ocean

True

4

What percentage of solar radiation is used for evaporation and condensation? Latent heat exchange

23

5

Ground water and glacier systems are a source of ....

Fresh water

6

Both ground water and glacial stores water _________.

Long term

7

Define precipitation.

Solid or liquid water that forms under saturated conditions and falls to earth

8

True or false
Most clouds produce rain

False

9

What is dew point?

When a cloud has reached 100% saturation

10

What is the dry adiabetic lapse rate?

-10 degrees Celsius per km

11

What percentage of water covers the earths planet?

71

12

What is relative humidity?

The amount of humidity in the air.

13

What percent relative humidity will be required to achieve dew point?

100%

14

What is Orographic uplift?

Air being forced to rise over elevated land or mountain

15

What is adiabetic lapse rate?

The change in temperature of air with altitude without the addition or removal of heat.

16

What is the difference between the dry adiabetic lapse rate (DALR) and the moist adiabetic lapse rate (MALR).

Moisture content of the air
Dry is -10degC/km
Moist is -6degC/km

17

What is the environmental lapse rate (ELR)?

-6.5degC/km

18

When does condensation occur?

At dew point temperature

19

What side of a mountain will have more saturated clouds?

Windward side

20

What phenomena does the leeward side of a mountain experience?

Rain shadow effect

21

What does descending air from the atmosphere do?

Warm and condense due to gravity/atmospheric pressure.

22

What is frontal precipitation?

Precipitation formed by movement of different air masses.
Cold front
Warm front
Occluded front

23

_______ air rises over ______.

Warm, cool

24

What type of front will have a steep adiabetic lapse rate?

Cold front

25

Define convergent instability.

Air masses merging causing lifting over short distances

26

Define convective instability.

Unequal surface heating causes localized instability and a rise of air masses followed by cooling and condensing.

27

What are the 6 forms of precipitation?

Rain
Freezing rain
Sleet
Snow
Graupel
Hail

28

Both freezing rain an sleet require a _______ inversion.

Temperature

29

Where is most precipitation deposited?

Around the equator

30

Define residence time.

Time for molecules to move through a component of a hydrological system

31

Larger components of water have __________ residence times

Larger

32

True or false
Water is a renewable resource.

False, it cannot be renewed in a human lifetime
True, it is renewable in quality and quantity.

33

Name three factors effecting quality and quantity of water, describe them.

Climate: local water budgets
Geology: substrate topography groundwater
Land use: recharge infiltration withdrawal storage contamination