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1

What are the 4 key functions of fat in the body?

- Major energy store and fuel source
- Required for transporting fat soluble vitamins
- Provide essential fatty acids
- Important for insulating and protecting the body

2

Give examples of two essential fatty acids. What is their function?

Linoleic and alpha-linoleic acid
Important for cell membrane and nervous system

3

What is the most common type of lipid found in the body and in food?

Triglycerides

4

Where are long-chain fatty acids primarily found?

Meat, fish, vegetable oils

5

Where are medium and short chain fatty acids found?

Dairy products

6

What aspect of fatty acids influences the characteristics of foods and the health of the body?

Short or long
Saturated or unsaturated
Location of double bond

7

What is the state of different fat types at room temperature?

Saturated fats: solid and more resistant to oxidation
Polyunsaturated fats: liquid
Shorter fatty acid chains: softer than long chains

8

Compare the likelihood of spoilage of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat.

Monounsaturated: Slightly less susceptible to spoilage
Polyunsaturated: Spoils most readily

9

What are the effects of hydrogenation of unsaturated fats?

- Protects against oxidation, therefore prolonging shelf life
- Alters texture
- Acts more like saturated fat

10

What is the structure of sterols?

Multiple rings

11

Give an example of a well-known sterol

Cholesterol

12

What kind of food are sterols found in?

Both animal and plant foods

13

In what kind of food is cholesterol found in?

Animal foods only - meat, eggs, fish, poultry, dairy

14

What can plant sterols interfere with?

Cholesterol absorption

15

Give examples of plant-based sterols

Logicol and Flora Proactiv

16

What percentage of cholesterol is made in the liver? What is the rest obtained from?

We make about 80% of cholesterol in our liver and 20% is obtained by diet.

17

What is cholesterol material for?

Bile acids and hormones

18

What is endogenous and exogenous cholesterol?

Endogenous: made in liver
Exogenous: obtained by diet

19

What are the roles of sterols?

- Starting material for bile acids, sex hormones, adrenal hormones and vitamin D.
- Structural component of cell membranes.

20

How much cholesterol does the liver produce a day?

800-1500 mg

21

What is a disease associated with cholesterol?

Atherosclerosis is a disease that causes heart attacks. It occurs when cholesterol forms deposits in the artery wall.

22

How does the mouth contribute to lipid digestion?

In the mouth, salivary glands release lingual lipase. The acid-stable lingual lipase initiates lipid digestion.

23

How does the stomach contribute to lipid digestion?

Muscle contractions disperse fat into smaller droplets. Fat is exposed to gastric lipase.

24

What signals the gallbladder to release bile?

Cholecystokinin

25

What happens to fat in the small intestine?

Emulsified by bile. Prevents them from being attracted to each other.
Emulsified fat is broken down into monoglycerides, glycerol, and fatty acids by pancreatic and intestinal lipase.
Pancreatic cholesterolesterase sterifies some of the esters in cholesterol

26

Describe the recycling of bile.

In the gallbladder, bile is stored. In the small intestine, bile emulsifies fats. Bile reabsorbed into the blood. In the liver, bile is made from cholesterol. In the colon, bile that has been trapped by soluble fibers is lost in faeces. Don't tend to lose much through this route.

27

What are the effects of plant sterols on bile recycling?

Plant sterols block the reabsorption of bile into blood from the small intestine, so the liver must manufacture its own cholesterol to make bile. They also increase the loss of bile in faeces.

28

How do statins affect cholesterol?

They reduce the production of LDL cholesterol by the liver.

29

What are statins prescribed for?

CV disease

30

What do fatty acids control in the stomach?

Gastric emptying