Flashcards in Lecture 13 Deck (41):
What are the functions of carbohydrates?
- Energy stores, fuels, metabolic intermediates
- Protein sparing
- Prevents ketosis
- Ribose and deoxyribose sugars are part of the structural framework of RNA and DNA
- Cellulose makes up most of plant cell walls
- Carbs are linked to many proteins and lipids, where they are vitally involved in cell interactions
What are the two basic compounds that carbohydrates consist of?
Aldehydes and ketones
Give examples of 3 monosaccharides and what food they are found within.
Galactose: milk and dairy products
Fructose: vegetable and fruit
Give three examples of disaccharides
Lactose: glucose and galactose
Maltose: glucose and glucose
Sucrose: glucose and fructose
Are starches water soluble?
What are sources of starch for humans?
Potatoes, rice, wheat
What is another name for dietary fibre?
Why isn't dietary fibre digestible?
Their glucose links can't be broken
What are the properties of soluble fibre?
Dissolves in water to form gel and easily digested by bacteria in the colon (fermentable)
What are the properties of insoluble fibre?
Does no dissolve in water. Does not form gel and is less readily fermented
What happens to starch in the mouth?
Salivary enzyme amylase begins digestion
Starch is broken down to small polysaccharides and maltose
What happens to starch in the stomach?
Stomach acid inactivates salivary enzymes, halting starch digestion.
What happens to starch in the small intestine?
Starch is broken down to small polysaccharides and maltose by pancreatic amylase
Disaccharide enzymes (maltase, sucrase, lactase) hydrolyse the disaccharides to monosaccharides
What is another name for disaccharidase?
Where are disaccharidases found?
On the microvilli of enterocytes
What happens in coeliac disease?
Microvilli are sloughed off and flattened. No brush border so can't produce disaccharidases. Consumption of milk will result in inability to digest. Severe gastroenteritis from bacteria can also cause temporary lactase deficiency.
What are final products of complete alpha-amylase digestion?
What is related to total activity of oligosaccharidase and total transport capacity?
Surface area of small intestine
What are glucose and galactose absorbed by?
The same Na+ linked transport protein: the sodium-glucose co-transporter 1. (Active transport)
How is fructose absorbed?
By facilitated transport down a conc. gradient
What are the symptoms of lactose intolerance?
Bloating, abdominal discomfort (bacteria ferment undigested lactose, producing gas), diarrhoea
What are the causes for primary and secondary lactase deficiency?
Primary: genetic predisposition
Secondary: caused by bacteria (gastroenteritis) or autoimmune disease (coeliac)
What are the management options for lactase deficiency?
- Remove milk products
- Increase consumption gradually (secondary lactase deficiency)
- Spreading dairy intake throughout the day
- Use of enzymes
Where does the absorption of carbs primarily take place?
What can high consumption of fructose lead to ?
What do proteins and fats require more of for digestion than carbs?
What is the most common source of energy for most humans?
How long do glycogen stores in the liver last for?
Hours, so dietary carbs are required on a regular basis
How can fat stores be used for energy? What is an issue that arises from this?
Fat stores can be converted to ketones. Ketones can be utilised as an alternative energy source but when production exceeds their use they accumulate in the blood causing ketosis, a condition which disturbs the body's normal acid-base balance.
What percentage of energy should be consumed from carbs?
10-15% from simple carbs
What are the two types of sugar?
1) intrinsic sugars found inside fruit and vegetables (mainly fructose) and milk (lactose)
2) added free sugars (mainly sucrose)
How does insoluble fibre prevent constipation?
Provides mass to the faeces making elimination easier. Plant fibres attract water ensuring the stools are large and soft.
What can constipation lead to?
Haemorrhoids due to the exertion of excessive pressure in the large intestine during defecation
What are the benefits of soluble fibre?
Inhibits absorption of cholesterol and cholesterol rich bile acids form the small intestine so lowers total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Bacteria in the large intestine degrade soluble fibre producing by-products which are beneficial for bowel health. Binds with fatty acids. Prolongs stomach emptying time. Regulates blood sugar.
What foods is soluble fibre found in?
Apples, oranges, lentils,
What foods is insoluble fibre found in?
Wholemeal bread, weetbix, skin on sweet potatoes, potatoes and courgettes
What do micriobiota in the large bowel thrive on?
How is our microbiota determined?
The microbiome that we are contaminated with at birth and breast feeding stays with us for the rest of our lives. Can change with diet, illness or radiotherapy but is reversible.
How does out microbiota affect us?
Lives with us synergistically. Affects our immune system, bowel health, regulates enterocyte turnover in bowel and DNA methylation in large bowel.
What are the recommended servings of carbs?