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1

What forms the superior boundary of the abdomen?

Diaphragm, inferior thoracic aperture

2

What forms the inferior boundary of the abdomen?

Iliac crest, inguinal ligament, pelvic inlet

3

What forms the posterior boundary of the abdomen?

Lumbar vertebral column, psoas major, quadratus lumborum, (abdominal wall muscles)

4

What forms the lateral and anterior boundaries of the abdomen?

Abdominal wall muscles

5

List the layers of the abdominal wall from the most superficial to most deep.

Skin
Camper's Fascia
Scarpa's Fascia
External Oblique
Internal Oblique
Transversus Abdominis
Transversalis Fascia
(Extraperitoneal Fascia)
Parietal Peritoneum

6

What are the two layers of the superficial fascia?

Camper's Fascia and Scarpa's Fascia

7

In the abdomen, where is the superficial fascia similar to that found elsewhere in the body?

Above the umbilicus

8

What happens to the superficial fascia below the umbilicus?

It divides into 2 layers: Camper's fascia and Scarpa's fascia

9

Describe the two layers of the superficial fascia. Which layer is more deep?

Camper's: thick, yellow, fatty layer all over the abdomen
Scarpa's: thinner, orange, membranous layer continuous with various other fascia (deep)

10

What are the functions of the muscles of the abdominal wall? What other feature aids the ability to move?

Provide stability and allow abdominal viscera to move. No bony structures between ribs and pelvis also allows movement.

11

What are the muscles of the abdominal wall?

Rectus Abdominis
External Oblique
Internal Oblique
Transversus Abdominis

12

What is the origin of Rectus Abdominis?

Pubic Tubercle, Crest, and Symphysis

13

What is the insertion of Rectus Abdominis?

Costal cartilages of ribs 5-7 and xiphoid process

14

What are the actions of Rectus Abdominis?

- Flex trunk
- Support/compress abdominal wall (Secondary respiratory muscles for forcing expiration)

15

What is the nerve supply of the Rectus Abdominis?

Anterior rami of thoracic spinal nerves

16

What is the origin of the external oblique muscle?

Ribs 5-12

17

What is the insertion of the external oblique muscle?

Iliac crest and linea alba via aponeurosis

18

Where does the aponeurosis of the external oblique stretch from and to?

From xiphoid process to pubic symphysis

19

What does the lower border of external oblique form?

Inguinal ligament

20

What are the actions of external oblique?

- Flex trunk (both)
- Turn to opposite side/bend trunk to same side (single)

21

What is the nerve supply of external oblique?

Anterior rami of thoracic spinal nerve

22

What is the fibre direction of external oblique?

Infero-medial

23

What is the origin of internal oblique?

Thoracolumbar fascia, inguinal ligament and iliac crest

24

What is the insertion of internal oblique?

Ribs 9-12

25

What are the actions of the internal oblique muscles?

- Flex trunk (both)
- Bend and turn trunk to same side (single)

26

What is the nerve supply of internal oblique?

Anterior rami of thoracic spinal nerves (some L1)

27

What is the fibre direction of internal oblique muscles?

Supero-medial

28

What is the origin of transversus abdominis?

Thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, inguinal ligament, costal cartilage of ribs 7-12

29

What is the insertion of transversus abdominis?

Linea alba, pubic crest, pectineal line

30

What is the action of the transversus abdominis?

Supports abdominal wall