Flashcards in Lecture 9 Deck (30):
Define nutritional status
Balance between nutrient intake and expenditure
What do measures of nutritional status indicate?
Intake, absorption, metabolism, storage, and excretion
What are the two types of assessment?
Individual level: diagnosis, screening, intervention, monitoring
Population level: policy setting, programme evaluation, nutritional surveillance
What is the ABCDE of nutrition assessment?
What does anthropometry involve?
Changes in physical dimensions (weight) and body composition – including rate of change
- Height/Stature/knee height/total arm length/arm span
Give some examples of invasive antropometric measurements
- Total body electrical conductivity
- Magnetic resonance imaging
What is the equation for calculating BMI?
What is the normal range of BMI?
18.50 - 24.99
What is the overweight range of BMI?
25.00 - 29.99
What is the equation for percentage weight loss?
(Usual weight - current weight (kg) x 100)/usual weight
What is often more relaible that standard tables for estimating weight loss?
Recalled well weight
What is body weight made up of?
Fat + lean tissue (including water)
What is the ideal body fat for men and women?
Men 12-20% body fat
Women 20-30% body fat
What percentages lead to increased health risks in men and women?
>22% fat in young men and >25% in men over 40
>32% in young women and >35% in women over 40
What ratio correlates with body fat? What standards are there for increased mortality risk?
Increased mortality risk > 0.8 women, >1.0 men
What are the standards for waist circumference that indicate increased mortality risk?
What is biochemical assessment used to test for?
- To detect subclinical or marginal deficiencies
- To enhance or support other nutritional data
- Nutrients in blood or urine, biopsy
- In vivo response to nutrient supplementation e.g Hb and iron
What does serum albumin level measure?
Main protein in blood. Determines protein status.
What does serum transferrin level measure?
Indicates iron-carrying protein in blood
What does clinical assessment detect?
- Detect signs and symptoms of malnutrition. Whether likely to be reversible
When are deficiencies usually clinically evident?
When it is severe
What may symptoms of deficiencies also be caused by?
- Symptoms may be caused by non-nutritional factors – secondary deficiency
- Symptoms may relate to several nutrients
What does a clinical assessment involve?
- Medical history
- Physical assessment: hair, skin, eyes, mouth, bones
- Physiological Tests e.g. Immune competence, taste, acuity, night blindness, muscle function, cognitive function, dental health (affects chewing and swallowing)
Outline the review of systems
General: appetite canges, weight loss/gain, clothes tighter/looser
GI symptoms/alimentary: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting
What is observed or reported in dietary evaluation?
Measurements of food consumption observed/reported
- Food and beverage intake – quality of diet
- Food consumption patterns (changes and trends) and preferences
- Usage of supplements (and effect on nutrient
- Feeding practices e.g. institutions
- Food security/insecurity: not enough money to buy the required food
- Economical/social: limited ability to cook food
What are the 4 main methods of dietary evaluation?
1. Diet (food) History
2. Food Frequency Questionnaire
3. 24 hour recall
4. Food records
What is the intake recorded in dietary assessment compared to?
- Recommended Dietary Intakes for age and gender
- Food and Nutrition Guidelines- recommended servings of food groups
- Healthy Eating plate models and Dietary Pyramids
What is the normal haemoglobin range?
What is Goiter?
Enlarged thyroid due to iodine deficiency