Lecture 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 9 Deck (30):
1

Define nutritional status

Balance between nutrient intake and expenditure

2

What do measures of nutritional status indicate?

Intake, absorption, metabolism, storage, and excretion

3

What are the two types of assessment?

Individual level: diagnosis, screening, intervention, monitoring
Population level: policy setting, programme evaluation, nutritional surveillance

4

What is the ABCDE of nutrition assessment?

- Anthropometric
- Biochemical
- Clinical
- Dietary
- (Economical/Social)

5

What does anthropometry involve?

Changes in physical dimensions (weight) and body composition – including rate of change
- Weight
- Height/Stature/knee height/total arm length/arm span
- Circumferences

6

Give some examples of invasive antropometric measurements

- Skinfolds
- Total body electrical conductivity
- Magnetic resonance imaging

7

What is the equation for calculating BMI?

Weight/(Height^2)

8

What is the normal range of BMI?

18.50 - 24.99

9

What is the overweight range of BMI?

25.00 - 29.99

10

What is the equation for percentage weight loss?

(Usual weight - current weight (kg) x 100)/usual weight

11

What is often more relaible that standard tables for estimating weight loss?

Recalled well weight

12

What is body weight made up of?

Fat + lean tissue (including water)

13

What is the ideal body fat for men and women?

Men 12-20% body fat
Women 20-30% body fat

14

What percentages lead to increased health risks in men and women?

>22% fat in young men and >25% in men over 40
>32% in young women and >35% in women over 40

15

What ratio correlates with body fat? What standards are there for increased mortality risk?

Waist:hip ratio
Increased mortality risk > 0.8 women, >1.0 men

16

What are the standards for waist circumference that indicate increased mortality risk?

>88cm women
>102cm men

17

What is biochemical assessment used to test for?

- To detect subclinical or marginal deficiencies
- To enhance or support other nutritional data
- Nutrients in blood or urine, biopsy
- In vivo response to nutrient supplementation e.g Hb and iron

18

What does serum albumin level measure?

Main protein in blood. Determines protein status.

19

What does serum transferrin level measure?

Indicates iron-carrying protein in blood

20

What does clinical assessment detect?

- Detect signs and symptoms of malnutrition. Whether likely to be reversible

21

When are deficiencies usually clinically evident?

When it is severe

22

What may symptoms of deficiencies also be caused by?

- Symptoms may be caused by non-nutritional factors – secondary deficiency
- Symptoms may relate to several nutrients

23

What does a clinical assessment involve?

- Medical history
- Physical assessment: hair, skin, eyes, mouth, bones
- Physiological Tests e.g. Immune competence, taste, acuity, night blindness, muscle function, cognitive function, dental health (affects chewing and swallowing)

24

Outline the review of systems

General: appetite canges, weight loss/gain, clothes tighter/looser
Skin: appearance
GI symptoms/alimentary: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting

25

What is observed or reported in dietary evaluation?

Measurements of food consumption observed/reported
- Food and beverage intake – quality of diet
- Food consumption patterns (changes and trends) and preferences
- Usage of supplements (and effect on nutrient
- Feeding practices e.g. institutions
- Food security/insecurity: not enough money to buy the required food
- Economical/social: limited ability to cook food

26

What are the 4 main methods of dietary evaluation?

1. Diet (food) History
2. Food Frequency Questionnaire
3. 24 hour recall
4. Food records

27

What is the intake recorded in dietary assessment compared to?

- Recommended Dietary Intakes for age and gender
- Food and Nutrition Guidelines- recommended servings of food groups
- Healthy Eating plate models and Dietary Pyramids

28

What is the normal haemoglobin range?

115-160 g/L

29

What is Goiter?

Enlarged thyroid due to iodine deficiency

30

Outline the Subjective Global Assessment Scoring Sheet

Gives score depending on weight change and food intake change, GI symptoms and physical examinations. Overall classification determines level of nourishment.