Lecture 13 - Alimentary 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 13 - Alimentary 5 Deck (50):
1

Which three arteries supply the foregut, midgut and hindgut?

Coeliac trunk, SMA and IMA

2

Which two arteries overlap in their supply to the pancreas?

coeliac trunk (superior pancreaticoduodenal arteries) and SMA (inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries)

3

What does the foregut consist of? (6)

Stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen and first + half of second part of the duodenum

4

Give for the foregut:
Blood supply
Blood drainage
Lymph drainage

Coeliac trunk
Splenic vein
Coeliac nodes

5

What group are the coeliac lymph nodes part of?

The preaortic nodes

6

What does the midgut consist of? (3)

Distal duodenum (below greater duodenal papilla)
Rest of the small intestine
Large intestine to approximately two thirds of the transverse colon

7

Give for the midgut:
Blood supply
Blood drainage
Lymph drainage

SMA
SMV
SMN

8

What does the hindgut consist of?

Rest of the larger intestine to the upper rectum
Also lower rectum + anus

9

What are the lower rectum + anus mostly supplied by though

The internal iliac arter

10

Give for the hindgut:
Blood supply
Blood drainage
Lymph drainage

IMA
IMV
IMN

11

Where do the sympathetic ganglia (coeliac, superior and inferior mesenteric) receive preganglionic fibres from?

Thoracic and lumbar splanchnic nerves

12

What are the sympathetic ganglia associated with?

The origins of the arteries of the same name

13

Give the for the foregut:
Sympathetic
Parasympathetic

Coeliac ganglion (paired) - thoracic splanchnic
Vagus

14

Give the for the midgut:
Sympathetic
Parasympathetic

SMG - thoracic splanchnic
Vagus

15

Give the for the hindgut:
Sympathetic
Parasympathetic

IMG - lumbar splanchnic
Pelvic splanchnics

16

What are the sensory fibres most sensitive to?

Stretch or distension/colic

17

What does sympathetic stimulation of the gut do?

Reduce motility and vasoconstrict

18

What does parasympathetic stimulation of the gut do>

Increase motility and secretion

19

What are the three branches of the coeliac trunk?

Splenic artery, left gastric artery and common hepatic artery

20

What are the 6 divisions of the SMA/
What are the parts of the gut supplied by branches of the SMA

Inferior pancreaticoduodenal
Jejunal
Ileal
Ileocolic
Right colic
Middle colic

21

What are the parts of the gut supplied by branches of the inferior mesenteric artery? (3)

Left colic
Sigmoid
Superior rectal

22

What is the marginal artery?

An arterial arcade which runs parallel to the large and intestine and forms side to side anastomoses

23

What does the marginal artery anastomose with?

Branches of the SMA and IMA

24

Where does the marginal artery extend from?

The sigmoid branch of interior mesenteric artery to the ileocolic branch of the SMA

25

What does the marginal artery allow for?

Retrograde flow from the IMA to supply areas normally supplied by the SMA/coeliac trunk if they become blocked

26

Where does the IMV join the splenic vein

Behind the body of the pancreas

27

Where does the SMV join the splenic vein

Behind the head of the pancreas

28

What is the portal vein formed by

The confluence of splenic and SMV

29

What are the arteries that supply the rectum and anus (4)?

Superior rectal (Branch of IMA)
Middle rectal (Branch of internal iliac)
Inferior rectal (Branch of internal iliac)
Middle sacral artery (from bifucation of aorta into common iliac)

30

What is the collective name for all the interconnecting venous plexuses either within the wall or outside muscle of the rectum?

Rectal venous plexuses

31

Where does the internal rectal plexus drain into?

IMV

32

Where does the external rectal plexus drain into (3)

upper IMV
Middle internal iliac vein
Lower internal pudendal (tributary of the IIV)

33

What causes haemorrhoids

Dilation of the veins of the internal plexus

34

What does the lymph drainage of the rectum follow?

The arteries to the pre-aortic and internal iliac nodes.
Exception: lower anal canal to superficial inguinal nodes

35

All the lymph drainage of the rectum goes to the pre-aortic and internal iliac nodes true or false?

False

36

The innervation of the rectum is completely autonomic true or false?

False, in the lower anal canal it is somatic

37

Where does the sympathetic innervation of the rectum originate from?

Lumbar sympathetic trunk

38

Where does the parasympathetic innervation of the rectum originate from?

Pelvic splanchnics (S2-4)

39

What can the rectum sense?

Stretch above the pectinate line
Pain and temperature below

40

What supplies the pancreas? (3)

Splenic (most)
Superior + inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries (head+uncinate process)

41

The splenic arteries anastomose with the superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries, true or false?

True

42

What is venous drainage of the pancreas?

Mostly splenic vein
Pancreaticoduodenal veins (head + uncinate process)

43

What is the lymph drainage of the pancreas like?

Pancreatic lymph nodes and vessels located along the splenic artery and its branches. Drain into the coeliac nodes

44

What is the nervous supply of the pancreas like?

Parasympathetic - vagal
Sympathetic - thoracic splanchnic

45

How does blood enter the liver?

Into the hilus via left and right branches of the hepatic artery and portal vein.

46

What else travels with the arteries into the hilum?

A plexus of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves derived from the coeliac plexus

47

What do both sets of vessels branch and branches travel together through?

Portal canals, portal areas or portal 'triads' along with:
bile duct and lymph vessels

48

Where do the sinusoids run in the liver?

From the outside of the lobules to central veins

49

How do the central veins of the liver eventually drain?

They anastomose to form larger veins (usually 3 larger upper and several smaller veins

50

How does lymph pass through the liver

1. Pores in the walls of sinusoids
2. Space of Disse (between sinusoids and hepatocytes)
3. Small lymph capillaries in portal areas
4. Hilum
5. Empty into the thoracic duct