Lecture 8 - Respiratory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 8 - Respiratory Deck (76):
1

Which vertebrae does the trachea span? How many cartilages are there

C6-T5
16-20

2

The trachea has cartilages posteriorly, true or false?

False

3

What is the posterior surface of the trachea flattened by

Oesophagus

4

What are the anterior relations of the trachea? (5)

Fascia, muscles of neck, manubrium, braciocephalic and common carotid arteries

5

What is lateral to the trachea?

Lungs

6

What do the trachea branch into and in turn?

Principle bronchi, then lobar bronchi

7

The right bronchi is longer and thinner than the left, true or false?

False

8

The right bronchi gives rise to 3 lobar bronchi true or false?

True

9

The right superior lobar bronchus arises within the substance of the lung, true or false?

False

10

Where does the right superior lobar bronchus enter the substance of the lung?

Hilum of the lung posterior to the pulmonary artery at T5

11

Where does the remaining right principle bronchus enter?

Posteroinferior to the artery and just below superior lobar bronchus

12

Where does the left principal bronchus enter the hilum

At T6

13

The left principal bronchus enters the hilum branched, true or false?

True

14

Where does the left principal bronchus enter the hilum?

Below the artery

15

What do the lobar bronchi divide into?

Segmental bronchi

16

At what point does the cartilage disappear in the branching?

When the diameter is smaller than 1mm and these are called bronchioles

17

What do bronchioles open into?

Alveolar ducts which then open into alveoli

18

What does the lining of alveoli consist of?

Type 1 cells which participate in the blood-air barrier along with numerous capillaries
Type 2 cells which produce surfactant
Wandering macrophages

19

How do you identify the surface anatomy of the trachea?

Identify C6 below prominent spine of C7 and T5 is just below sternal angle

20

How many pleural cavities are there?

2, one for each lung

21

How would you describe how the lungs invaginate the closed cavities?

Like a fist in a balloon

22

Name the two pleura

Visceral and parietal

23

What does the visceral pleura cover?

The outer surface of the lungs including the fissure

24

What is the loose sleeve called that is formed by the parietal pleura adjacent to the medial surface of each lung?

Pulmonary ligament

25

What does the pleural space contain?

A film of serous fluid which allows the pleura to slide over each other

26

What is the root of lung

Structures that enter and leave the lung

27

What is the purpose of the root of the lung?

Only attachment of the lungs so they can stretch and recoil freely

28

What are pleural recesses?

Regions where parietal pleura are in contact

29

Where is the costodiaphragmatic recess?

The angle between thoracic cage and diaphragm

30

Where is the costomediastinal recess?

Medially between ribcage and mediastinum

31

The visceral pleura is sensitive to pain, true or false

False

32

Why is the parietal pleura pain sensitive? (which nerves supply it)

Branches of the intercostal and phrenic nerves

33

What is the anterior border of each lung shaped by?

The costodiaphragmatic recess

34

What is the posterior border of the lung shaped by?

The vertebral column and is rounded

35

Why do the two lungs differ in shape and size?

The heart protrudes more into the left pleural cavity

36

What impressions are on the medial surface of the right lung

Azygos, right subclavian artery, SVC, heart (right atrium)

37

Which fissure does the left lung usually have

oblique

38

What does the lower anterior border of the left lung also have

cardiac notch above a tongue of superior lobe tissue, the lingula

39

What impressions are on the medial surface of the left lung

aorta, left subclavian, left common carotid, heart (left and right ventricles)

40

How can the lobes be further divided?

Into the branches of the lobar bronchi

41

What comprises the root of lung

pulmonary arteries and veins, bronchial arteries and veins, lymph vessels, bronchi and nerves

42

What happens to the pleura at the hilum?

The parietal pleura is reflected to cover the lung as visceral pleura

43

What do large hilar lymph nodes contain?

Dark particles in old people or those exposed to contaminated air

44

What is the surface anatomy of the apex of each lung

Supraclavicular region - level of the clavicle and lateral to sternocleidomastoid

45

What vessels are involved with the trachea

Inferior thyroid vessels

46

Which lymph nodes are associated with the trachea and where do they drain?

Pretracheal, paratracheal which drain into the deep cervical nodes

47

What provides the oxygenated supply of blood to the lungs and where do they originate?

Small bronchial arteries from the descending aorta

48

What vessels drain the lungs and into what major vein?

Bronchial veins into either pulmonary veins or azygos system

49

What is the lymph drainage of the lung

2 networks of vessels, subpleural and deep

50

What does the deep lymph drainage follow?

Blood vessels and bronchi

51

Where are the lymph nodes of the bronchi concentrated?

Bifucations

52

What is the path of lymph drainage

Along the bronchi to hilus, receiving subpleural and ultimately to the bronchomediastinal trunks

53

What forms the pulmonary plexus

Vagus and sympathetic trunk

54

What are the major muscles of inspiration

Diaphragm and external intercostals

55

What are the major muscles of expiration

Internal, innermost intercostals and muscles of the abdominal wall

56

What direction are the ribs pulled in during quiet inspiration and why?

Upwards and outwards due to contraction of the external intercostal muscles and contraction/downward movement of the diaphragm.

57

Why does air flow into lungs

Pressure reduction due to enlargement of pleural cavity

58

What other muscles are recruited during deep inspiration

neck muscles (sternocleidomastoid and scalene), muscles of upper limb (pectoralis major & minor, serratus anteiror) and quadratus lumborum

59

What motion do the external intercostals and diaphragm perform during quiet expiration

Relax and move upwards

60

What else enhances the upward movement of the diaphragm

Pressure from abdominal viscera which are forced upwards by abdominal muscles

61

What extra muscles are recruited during forced expiration

internal and immernost intercostal muscles, abdominal muscles (anterolateral abdominal wall -external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominus).

62

How are the anterolateral abdominal wall muscles attached to the ribcage

Superiorly to the lower part of the ribcage and inferiorly to the pelvic bone

63

What is the external nose comprised of?

Bony and cartilaginous framework covered with skin and muscle

64

How many conchae are on the internal lateral wall of each nostril?

3 with the superior one being the smallest

65

What are the posterior openings of the nose into the nasopharynx called?

Choanae

66

What do the paranasal sinuses drain into?

Nasal cavity

67

Where does air pass through in the upper respiratory system

Nasopharynx into oropharynx and laryngopharynx

68

Where do the nasolacrimal ducts drain tears from and to?

From the medial corner of the eye to an opening under the inferior concha

69

Where do the auditory tubes open into?

The lateral walls of the nasopharynx and they connect to the air filled middle ear and mastoid process

70

What is the lowest part of the pharynx and where does it become the oesophagus?

laryngopharynx and at C6

71

What determines where air flow in the larynx goes?

Epiglottis and vocal folds

72

When does the epiglottis close?

During swallowing

73

What nerves control the movement of the laryngeal muscles?

Recurrent laryngeal branches of the vagus

74

What are the three tonsils of the upper respiratory passage and what are they associated with

pharyngeal tonsil - posterior wall of the nasopharynx
lingual tonsil - posterior tongue
palatine tonsils - paired in oral cavity

75

What lymphatic tissue do the upper respiratory tonsils form

gut associated lymphatic tissue

76

What nerve is associated with the trachea?

Vagus