Lecture 19: Female Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

First Semester: Microscopic Anatomy > Lecture 19: Female Reproductive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 19: Female Reproductive System Deck (33):
1

5 major functions of the female reproductive system

1. Exocrine - production of the female gametes
2. Endocrine - production of female sex hormones
3. Reception of male gametes and provision of a suitable environment for fertilization
4. Provision of a suitable environment for fetal development
5. Nutrition of the newborn

2

Two major functions of the ovaries

1. Produce the female gametes
2. Produce the sex hormones

3

Two basic structures of ovaries

1. Cortex - broad peripheral zone containing follicles in various stages of development
2. Medulla - contains connective tissue, nerves, blood, and lymph vessels

4

Ovary cortex is lined by

Low cuboidal epithelium

5

Underneath the epithelium of the ovarian cortex is

A layer of connective tissue called the tunica albuginea

6

Folliculogenesis

Continuous process throughout reproductive life whereby primordial follicles undergo maturation during each reproductive cycle

7

Follicular growth and maturation is dependent on

Follicular stimulating hormone from the adenohypophysis

8

Luteinizing hormone is important for

estrogen synthesis and ovulation

9

Primordial follicle primary oocyte

-Enclosed by flattened simple squamous follicular cells that rest on the basal lamina
-Retained in a resting stage from the time they formed in the fetal ovary

10

Primary follicle primary oocyte

Enclosed by a simple cuboidal layer of follicular cells

Oocyte is larger than that found in a primordial follicle

11

Secondary follicle primary oocyte

Enclosed by several layers of follicular cells

Follicular cells proliferate through mitosis and are called granulosa cells

12

When follicular cells proliferate through mitosis, they are called

granulosa cells

13

Zona pellucida

Glycoprotein layer loacted at the interphase between the oocyte and granulosa cells

14

Theca cells

Large, pale staining spindle-shaped cells that have the morphology of steroid producing/metabolizing cells

15

Granulosa cells

Acquire receptors for follicle stimulating hormone

16

(Tertiary follicles) As follicle becomes larger, what appears?

Small liquid-filled areas appear between the granulosa cells (Antrum)

17

Fluid inside antrum of tertiary follicles is called

liquor folliculi

18

Majority of follicles degenerate through

atresia

19

In follicular atresia, the oocyte, zona pellucida, and follicular cells

degenerate and are absorbed

20

During follicular atresia, the basal lamina of the granula cells

becomes hyalinized (glassy membrane)

21

In follicular atresia, the theca interna cells

blend back in with the stroma

22

During follicular atresia in the queen, bitch, and rodents, the theca interna cells

may persists as interstitial endocrine cells

23

Describe the development of the corpus luteum

1. After ovulation, the blood flows into the antrum and thre ruptured follicle becomes the corpus hemorrhagicum
2. Capillaries from the stroma invade the collapsed follicle and convert it into a temporary endocrine organ called the corpus luteum

24

Luteinization

The process by which the granulosa and theca cells transform into luteal cells (hypertrophy and hyperplasia)

25

In response to FSH and LH, granulosa lutein cells produce

progesterone and estrogens

26

In response to LH, theca lutein cells produce

progesterone

27

Yellow pigment (lutein) of the corpus luteum appears in what species?

Where does it not appear?

- Carnivores, mares, cows
-Sows, ewes, and goats

28

Involution of the corpus luteum results in

A fibrous scar called corpus albicans

29

Oviduct

A muscular tube derived from the mullerian ducts

On one end it opens into the uterine cavity and at the other into the peritoneal cavity

30

5 functions of the oviduct

1. Receive ovum - very active during ovulation; ovum is picked up by the fimbriae and directed into the oviduct
2. Cilia assist the transport
3. Epithelial secretions promote capacitation of sperm
4. Provide a favorable microenvironment for fertilization (ampulla)
5. Transport the zygote to the uterus for implantation

31

Mucosa epithelium of the oviduct

Simple columnar or psuedostratified columnar, with motile cilia on most cells

32

Non-ciliated cells on the oviduct have secretory granules in the cytoplasm because...

Provides nutrients to the ovum

33

Three functions of the uterus

1. Provides a sterile environment for the development