Lecture 22: Blood and Hematopoiesis Flashcards Preview

First Semester: Microscopic Anatomy > Lecture 22: Blood and Hematopoiesis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 22: Blood and Hematopoiesis Deck (86):
1

Three functions of whole blood

1. Transport
2. Temperature regulation
3. Water balance

2

Whole blood is what percent total body weight

5-10%

3

Whole blood is comprised of

60% of plasma (water, solutes)
40% formed elements (RBC, WBC, PLT)

4

Plasma composition

90% water
8% proteins
2% other solutes

5

Plasma is found.., unlike serum

in vasculature

6

Serum lacks..., unlike plasma

coagulation proteins (fibrinogen)

7

Plasma tubes

anticoagulant tubes - blood does not clot

8

Serum tubes

serum separators - blood is allowed to clot

9

Examples of plasma tubes

EDTA - purple
Heparin - green
Citrate - blue

10

Examples of serum tubes

Red top
Marble top

11

Daily output of RBC

2.5 billion

12

Daily output of WBC

1.0 billion

13

Daily output of PLT

2.5 billion

14

Most numerous formed element in blood

RBC (measured in millions, versus WBC and PLT measured in thousands)

15

Two functions of RBC

-Carry O2 to tissue and CO2 to lungs
-Involved in acid-base homeostasis

16

Shape of erthrocytes

-Biconcave disc
-Flexible membrane
-High SA-V ration

17

Mean cell volume is measured in

femtoliters (fL)

18

Lifespan of RBC is roughly proportional to

body size

19

Polychromatophils

-RBCs that are 1 stage back in development
-Normal finding in low numbers in some species
-Larger than mature RBC, smaller than neutrophil
-Round to amorphous
-Amphophilic color

20

Nucleated erythrocytes in mammals

-Abnormal finding associated with pathology
-Ex: Regenerative anemia, bone marrow damage, diseases affecting RBC maturation, damage to spleen/asplenia, some toxins

21

Least numerous formed element in the blood

Leukocytes

22

Function of leukocytes

Inflammation and the immune response

23

Two major categories of leukocytes based on developmental process

1. Myeloid
2. Lymphoid

24

Four myeloid leukocytes

-Neutrophils
-Eosinophils
-Basophils
-Monocytes

25

Lymphoid leukocytes

lymphocytes

26

Most numerous WBC

neutrophil

27

Function of neutrophils

-Innate immunity
-Phagocytic and killing cells
-Granules contain antibacterial substances

28

Neutrophil staining

-Nucleus: segmented with dense violet chromatin
-Cytoplasm: pale-staining, neutral

29

Heterophil staining

-Nucleus: segmented with dense violet chromatin
-Cytoplasm: red, rice-shaped granules

30

Band neutrophils

-Rare bands are normal blood smear findings in some species
-One stage less than mature segmented neutrophil

31

Band neutrophil staining

-Nucleus lacks clear segmentation and the irregular outline seen in mature neutrophil

32

Monocytes differentiate into

macrophages in tissue

33

Functions of monocytes

-Phagocytosis
-Antigen presentation to T-lymphocytes
-Iron storage and recycling

34

Mononuclear Phagocytic System (MPS) is comprised of

1. Circulating monocytes
2. Tissue macrophages

35

Where is the MPS located

-Serosal cavities
-Liver: Kupffer cells
-Spleen
-Lungs (aalveolar macrophages)
-Brain (microglial cells)
-Bone (osteoclasts)

36

Monocyte size

Typically large cells, usually the largest in the blood smear

37

Nucleus of monocyte

-Shape ranges from round to kidney-shaped to band-shaped to psuedosegmented
-Chromatin is lacy/loosely clumped and magenta

38

Cytoplasm of monocyte

Abundant, blue, frequently vacuolated

39

____ eosinophils in tissue for each one in blood

300

40

Purpose of eosinophils

Modulate delayed and immediate typer hypersensitivity reactions

41

Eosinophils are attracted by

histamine

42

Eosinophils are commonly associated with

mast cells

43

Eosinophils are a defense against

helminthic parasites

44

Morphology of eosinophils

-Contain eosinophilic granules
-Bright reddish-orange, sometimes refractile
-Contain many arginine-rich proteins (anti-parasitic and anti-bacterial)

45

Nucleus of eosinophils

Segmented with clumped chromatin, similar to a neutrophil

46

Cytoplasm of eosinophils

Usually stains pale, contains eosinophilic granules

47

Least numerous WBC in blood

Basophils

48

Increased concentration of basophils are often associated with

parasitic infestations and allergic reactions
heartworm disease

49

Morphology of basophils

-Generally slightly larger than a neutrophil
-Basophilis granules contain histamine and many other proteins

50

Nucleus of basophils

Elongated and ribbon-like, segmented

51

Cytoplasm of basophils

Abundant amphophilic cytoplasm with purple granules

52

Second most numerous cell population in blood

Lymphocytes

53

Percentage of lymphocytes

20-40%

54

Lymphocytes are found

In blood, lymphatic circulation, lymphatic tissue

55

Purpose of lymphocytes

Humoral immunity: B cells, plasma cells
Cell-mediated immunity: T cells

56

Nucleus vs cytoplasm in lymphocyte

High N:C ratio, mostly nucleus

57

"Reactive" lymphocytes are associated with

An immune response

58

Plasma cells are..
Are they seen in normal blood smears?

-Fully differentiated B-cells
-Not normally seen in blood smears

59

Second most numerous formed element in the blood

Platelets/thrombocytes

60

Function of PLT

-Primary hemostasis (clotting)
-Role in primary inflammatory response

61

Do PLT have a nucleus?

Nope

62

"Activated" spread pseudopodia (star-shaped) occurs in the platelets of what species?

Feline

63

Three types of Romanowsky's stains

1. Wright's
2. Wright's Giemsa
3. May-Grimwald

64

Romanowsky Stains are able to differentiate between

Blood cells (RBC, WBC, PLT)

65

Two standard dyes used in combo in Wright's Stain

-Eosin
-Methylene blue

66

Wright's stain in vet med

Diff-Quik
Quick-Dip

67

Three dyes used in Wright's-Giemsa stain

-Eosin
-Methylene blue
-Azure B

68

May-Grimwald

More intense coloration

69

New methylene blue is attracted to

Acidic/negatively charged proteins, DNA, RNA

70

Bone marrow is derived from

mesenchymal tissue

71

Red marrow purpose

-Produces all blood cells (hematopoietic tissue)
-Stores iron

72

Yellow marrow

-Fatty tissue that replaces red marrow
-Aging change

73

Bone marrow is high or low cellular tissue

high

74

The complex microenvironment of bone marrow supports the growth of

Hematopoietic cells

75

4 components of bone marrow

-Sinusoids
-Stromal cells
-Stem cells and precursor cells
-Macrophages

76

Sinusoids in bone marrow

-Large lumen
-Formed by discontinuous endothelial cells

77

Stroma

A CT network

78

Purpose of stroma in bone marrow

support structure of bone marrow

79

Stroma is composed of

-Mesenchymal cells
-Reticular cells
-Reticular fibers

80

Cells that live in bone marrow

-Hematopoietic stem cells
-Stem cells of each lineage

81

Purpose of bone marrow macrophages

-Store iron
-Involved in moderating hematopoiesis
-Regulates bone formation

82

Bone marrow cellularity varies with

age

83

Hematopoiesis

Process were specialized cellular precursors develop into highly differentiated cells of peripheral blood

84

Postnatal sites of hematopoiesis

1. Bone marrow
-Proximal end of femur and humerus
-Pelvis
-Sternum
-Ribs
-Vertebrae
-Scapula
-Skull
2. Liver
3. Spleen

85

Where does granulopoiesis occur

bone marrow

86

Granulopoiesis is regulated by

Colon stimulating factors and inflammatory cytokines