Lecture 2 (Embryology, cells, and Skin) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2 (Embryology, cells, and Skin) Deck (47):
1

Anatomy Types

Anatomy: "to cut apart"
Gross: body or organs with naked eye
Microscopic
Development: embryology
Pathological: Abnormalities

2

Major organ systems (11)

Organs are made of tissues which are made of cells
1. Integument
2. skeletal
3. articulations (joints)
4. muscular
5. circulatory
6. respiratory
7. digestive
8. urinary
9. nervous (sense organs)
10. endocrine
11. Reproudctive

3

Integument

Skin, hair, nails

4

Skeletal

Bones and cartilage

5

Circulatory

Heart, arteries, capillaries, veins

6

Respiratory

Nose, larynx, lungs

7

Digestive

Mouth, pharynx, intestines, glands of this system

8

Urinary

Kidney, bladder

9

Nervous system

Senses, taste and smell, perception,
sense organs (eye, ear, smell, taste, pain, temperature, and proprioception)

10

Endocrine

hormones

11

Reproductive

Male and female

12

Articulation

Joints and Ligaments

13

3 primary germ layers

1. Ectoderm
2. mesoderm
3. endoderm

14

Ectoderm

Outer most layer of skin
Cells divide very rapidly and make many functions
Brain and spinal column are also made from this (entire nervous system)

15

Mesoderm

Middle layer of skin
Muscles that attach to bones, the bones, the heart, blood vessels, kidney

16

Endoderm

Innermost layer
Respiratory system, digestive and it's gland

17

Cells

Some cells have no nucleus (Blood cells)
marrow, contain many nuclei
Nuclei can have diff shapes (help with ID)

18

Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum

Helps with neutralizing of poisons

19

Mitochondria

Production of ATP, Especially in cells that contract

20

Microvilli

Cilia that are really small

21

Flagella

The long tail of sperm

22

Pigment

Melanin: absence of pigment (Blue eyes = see the blood vessels)

23

Tumors

Cluster of cells that grow rapidly (abnormal)

24

Benign

grows slowly, not dangerous, maybe a little painful (very common)

25

Malignant

May break off the tumor and travel (metastasis)

26

Integument (Skin) system

Largest organ, heaviest (7% of body weight)
Protects against: UV, environment, bacteria
Regulates body temperature

27

Exretion

Sweat out the excess salt or alcohol
Glands in the female breast are modified sweat glands (Breast milk = modified sweat)

28

Vitamin D

Sun exposure = metabolism, growth of bones, in children

29

Thin skin

Hair, most of the body is covered

30

Thick skin

No hair, soles and palms

31

Sebum

Hair oil, from the sebaceous gland
Too much = acne
Water helps dilute this

32

Sweat glands (Specialized versions)

Ear: wax
Breast: milk

33

Meisner's Touch receptors

Nerve endings in the hand
Deal with delicate touch
Palm and fingers have a lot
A lot in your face

34

Pacinian corpuscles

Pressure receptors: Vibration and deep pressure
Numerous in the sole of the feet
Used in learning to walk
abundant in the hand

35

Melanocycte

Melanin containing cells
We all have the same number of cells
Skin color: how much pigment you have/ white = less pigment not less melanocytes

36

Tattoos

Subcutaneous epidermis (fat layer) is penetrated
Keeps the pigment there longer

37

Skin Cancer

Most common form of cancer (1/3 of all cancer)
98% is curable

38

3 forms of skin cancer

1. Squamous cell cacerinoma
2. Basil Cell
3. Melanoma

39

Squamis cell carcerinoma

Cancer, flkay cell, epidermis
treatable
Doesnt not metastasize

40

Basil Cell

Base of the epidermis, Roundish, Doesnt break the base membrane
Treatable
Doesnt Metastasize

41

Melanonma

Least treatable
Melanocytes are cancerous
Cells divide very rapidly, they metastasize very quickly
Least common

42

ABCDE's of Melanoma

A: Asymmetry (Not round circle)
B: borders, not smooth are irregular
C: colors, various colors
D: diameter, eraser of a pencil (bigger might be melanoma
E: evolving, ever changing and growing

43

Burns

Thermal: Excessive heat
Electrical: hot electrical wire, lightning
Chemical: strong acids and bases
Inhalation: breath in things that are dangerous
Friction Burns: rope burns
Radiation: explosions, atomic (radioactive)

44

1st degree burn

Only top layer of epidermis,
Sun burns

45

2nd degree burn

Through epidermis
Fluid rushes in, blisters form

46

3rd degree

Epidermis and demis is destroyed, nerves as well,
No sensation, painless
Full thickness burn
Require skin graphs

47

4th degree

All epi and dermis, down to deep tissue
Muscle, ligament and bones
Amputation is required