Lecture 2 (Embryology, cells, and Skin) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2 (Embryology, cells, and Skin) Deck (47)
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1

Anatomy Types

Anatomy: "to cut apart"
Gross: body or organs with naked eye
Microscopic
Development: embryology
Pathological: Abnormalities

2

Major organ systems (11)

Organs are made of tissues which are made of cells
1. Integument
2. skeletal
3. articulations (joints)
4. muscular
5. circulatory
6. respiratory
7. digestive
8. urinary
9. nervous (sense organs)
10. endocrine
11. Reproudctive

3

Integument

Skin, hair, nails

4

Skeletal

Bones and cartilage

5

Circulatory

Heart, arteries, capillaries, veins

6

Respiratory

Nose, larynx, lungs

7

Digestive

Mouth, pharynx, intestines, glands of this system

8

Urinary

Kidney, bladder

9

Nervous system

Senses, taste and smell, perception,
sense organs (eye, ear, smell, taste, pain, temperature, and proprioception)

10

Endocrine

hormones

11

Reproductive

Male and female

12

Articulation

Joints and Ligaments

13

3 primary germ layers

1. Ectoderm
2. mesoderm
3. endoderm

14

Ectoderm

Outer most layer of skin
Cells divide very rapidly and make many functions
Brain and spinal column are also made from this (entire nervous system)

15

Mesoderm

Middle layer of skin
Muscles that attach to bones, the bones, the heart, blood vessels, kidney

16

Endoderm

Innermost layer
Respiratory system, digestive and it's gland

17

Cells

Some cells have no nucleus (Blood cells)
marrow, contain many nuclei
Nuclei can have diff shapes (help with ID)

18

Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum

Helps with neutralizing of poisons

19

Mitochondria

Production of ATP, Especially in cells that contract

20

Microvilli

Cilia that are really small

21

Flagella

The long tail of sperm

22

Pigment

Melanin: absence of pigment (Blue eyes = see the blood vessels)

23

Tumors

Cluster of cells that grow rapidly (abnormal)

24

Benign

grows slowly, not dangerous, maybe a little painful (very common)

25

Malignant

May break off the tumor and travel (metastasis)

26

Integument (Skin) system

Largest organ, heaviest (7% of body weight)
Protects against: UV, environment, bacteria
Regulates body temperature

27

Exretion

Sweat out the excess salt or alcohol
Glands in the female breast are modified sweat glands (Breast milk = modified sweat)

28

Vitamin D

Sun exposure = metabolism, growth of bones, in children

29

Thin skin

Hair, most of the body is covered

30

Thick skin

No hair, soles and palms