Lecture 2: from agriculture to early science and new technologies (Greeks) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2: from agriculture to early science and new technologies (Greeks) Deck (51):

Who did King Hiero make an alliance with? why?

He allied with the Romans b/c he noticed that they were increasing in size and in military power 


(lech) Technically speaking, the sumerians, babylonians, and egyptians created science.

false . Yes they invented things but thats it; they just stopped there


Where is Miletus of Ionia located?

Modern day turkey -> back then it was still Greece


what geographic location was science born in?

Miletus of Ionia.

  • foundations of modern science born here


Aristotle argued that ...

senses lead to observation -> mind leads to logic -> logic leads to knowledge


This was a problem though ... Lech uses example of a dog with 3 legs -> aristotle concludes based on observation that it is not a dog


Empedocles did ...

  • first to take experimental approach
    • interested in studying volcanos and their heat


What was the greek law system? how did it work?

based on tangible evidence

  • needed to be seen and touched
  • part of scientific presentation


what did Parmenides of Elea invent/argue

  • 515BC
  • science not about absolute knowlege  b/c you cant gain knowledge through senses or observation of experiments
  • need to bo beyond sensory experience
  • no change, everything stays the same
    • senses = illusion


What did Anaximander of Miletus invent/do?

  • created first world map
  • looked at the world as a whole other than just greece
  • interested in looking at the origins of mankind
  • developed evolution theory
    • origins of mankind without divine intervention


What were the Greeks able to do that the egyptians and sumerians didnt (which helped them progress as a society?)

they were able to seperate  religion from life (regarding science, technology, ect.)


Discuss Main points about the allegory of the cave

  • cave with passage that connects 2 towns (with fire illuminating)
  • ppl chained to wall ever since born
    • grew up to adult hood with seeing nothing but reflections on the wall
  • chained ppl see distorted shadows on wall
  • to those ppl chained, the shadows are the only reality that they know
  • this is the problem with scientific observation based on our human senses -> we need to go beyond them


what was Archimede's biggest downfall?

That he was so disconnected with reality. He was only concerned about math and trying to find ways to create new math. he pissed the soldier who found him off and got killed cuz he said he was too busy doing math


who was known as the greatest scientist of all time?



the greeks had a public communication network. what was this called? what did it allow for?

its called agora

  • center scquar in cities
  • anyone allowed to voice their ideas/opinions
  • ideas spread through discussion
  • discourse used and encouraged


Who founded the first school known as the Academy (capital of science and philosphy?)



"if there is no change, then something cannot possibly happen"

A) Parmenides of Elea

B) Thales of Miletus

C) Aristotle

D) Democritus

E) none of the above

E) Zeno of Elea


who can be attributed to the example of an arrow flying as only an illusion because you see it with your senses

Parmenides of Elea


Heron of Alexandria was the first to put scientific theory and technology together

False. Archimedes did


"Science is not about knowledge because you cant gain knowledge through the senses or observation of experiments"

A) Aristotle

B) Plato

C) Parmenides

D) Empedocles 

C) Parmenides


The Carthygeans were the Greeks

False. the Syracus were


Who was the Greek scientist who believed in reductionism?

Democritus 460-370 BC


the allegory of the cave highlights the problem with ....

scientific investigation based on our human senses THUS we need to go beyond them


who argues that true knowledge cannot be gained through senses cuz senses are unreliable?

Plato 427-347 BC


Athens became the heart of scientific technological innovations.

False. Alexandria in Egypt would -> Archimedes studied here


Who created Mythology? what did he argue


  • standard texts that would subject greek beliefs on the subject of the divine
  • methods of the world can be discovered by humans without need of divine intervention


what was the major influence behind the egyptians, sumerians, and babylonian's inability to create science?

Religion b/c it influences ones worldview


what did Pythagoras invent?

  • everything is made of numbers
  • fundamental reality can be understood and studied by mathematics
  • Math = universal language
  • he also proposed the model of the earth with the 2 earths (called counter earth)
    • Hestia -> central fire = sun
    • counter earth shields earth from fire


who argued that the Fundamental reality can be understood and studied by mathematics?

Pythagoras 569-475 BC


Discuss Aristotle (include his year)

  • 384-322 BC
  • observation can lead to knowledge
  • proved earth was sphere (through lunar eclipse)
  • believed in geocentric universe (even though the Greeks knew we live in a heliocentric universe)
  • introduced physics -> Motion and Resistence
  • believed in no motion without movement
  • logic comes before sensory experienc
  • father of biology


Describe Archimedes

  • took scientific theory and applied it to technology
  • used the King of Syracus to fund his projects (by showing the king that he was able to move ship from water to land)
  • he studied in alexandria
  • mathematician 


everyone before Socrates was called ...

pre-socrates or Ionians (b/c of where they lived)


Who is Plato. What did he argue/invent

  • had idea about what reality is and how our senses can be used for observation
  • Senses unreliable
  • to gain true knowledge -> must go beyond human senses
  • founded first school -> the academy
  • Allegory of the cave
  • teaching done through dialogue


who was 214BC Marcus Claudius Marcellus. what did he order and (not) order

  • ruthless roman king
  • ordered navy and army to destroy Syracus once they turned their backs on them
  • had too much respect for archimedes that he didnt want any of his soldiers to kill him


List all of Archimedes' inventions

  • gearbox (reduction gears)
  • Mechanical Planetaria 
    • 1st early mechanical computer (used spheres and gears to move planets)
  • mechanical clock
    • changed everything (like the plow)
    • we were now able to keep track of time
    • Arabs later used his design to make their own clock
  • Antikythera 
    • Oldest known form of computer
    • found on greek battle ship
  • catapult
  • iron claw
  • crane
  • death ray (secret weapon)


what did Democritus do?

- first scientist to have an interest in experimentation

believed in reductionism

- the atom came from his explanation with the rock and the grain of sand

- things are created when atoms come together



what are the 4 components needed for science?

  1. free time
  2. record keeping
  3. standardized measurement system
  4. mathematics


today, we credit ____ for the invention of calculus 



what was the year that the romans destroyed the Syracusians ?

212 BC


Who argued that there was no change and everything stayed the same?



who was the first philosopher to reject divine intervention?

Thales of Miletus 624-574 BC


what did the war b/w the Syracusians and the Romans show about Archimedes and science?

  • It proved to everyone in the ancient world that it is worth investing in money in scientists, mathmaticians and philosophers
  • From here on, there was WAY more investment in science


what was the difference b/w the gods of the past civilizations and the greek gods?

  • humans interacted with gods -> dont need priest to speak on behalf
  • gods like humans -> they shared similar qualities


what did Thales of Melitus argue/invent 624-574

  • first philosopher/scientist
  • first greek astronomer -> predicted solar eclipses 
  • rejects divine intervention
  • Everything that happens around us, and in the sky, doesn’t happen cuz of the gods -> it happens because of natural reasons
  • created the foundations of mathematics
  • he measured height of pyramid based on their shadow


the introduction to the atom came from

A) Democritus

B) Archimedes

C) Ptolemy

D) Eratosthenes

A) democritus


Aristotle was the father of biology



Who was Zeno of Elea?

  • 490-425 BC
  • logical conclusion
  • no change = no motion
  • Paradox of a Runner
    • can never reach finish line
    • infinite number of divisions b/w him and the finish line
    • always division of space b/w one object and another


who created the first world map?

Anaximander of Miletus 611-576 BC


Archemedis introduced physics?

False. Aristotle


who can be attrributed to the "paradox of the runner"

Zeno of Elea


Syracus was the home town of Aristotle

False. Archimedes


The sumerians were the first society that was able to do nothing and just think in an organized fashion b/c of the invention of the plow and the rise of food surplus

False. The greeks were the first to take advantage of their spare time in an organized fashion