Lecture 20: Intro to Radiographic Imaging Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 20: Intro to Radiographic Imaging Deck (34):
1

xray

plain radiograph

xrays pass through tissue; more or less pass based on density

more dense structures= more white; less dense= less white

radiation!

2

fluoroscopy

moving/continuous xray, often w/ contrast agent

radiation!

i.e. intestine imaging

3

CT

similar to radiograph, but xrays pass through body in 360 directions from rotating source; used to generate slices through tissue

radiation!

4

CT angiogram/angiogram

visualize coronary arteries

5

why not to do xray on pregnant woman

early in preg: can cause teratogens as organogenesis occurs

late in preg: can radiate bone marrow which can cause leukemia/cancers in childhood

6

MRI

uses body's intrinsic magnetic properties to create image

spinning water hydrogen proteon is mini magent in larger magnet, the MRI scanner

cannot use on pt with metal in body

no radiation!

7

ultrasound

uses high frequency sound waves; different tissue reflect back more/less sound waves which are "detected" by transducter and images are generated

portable, in "real time"

no radiation!

8

fundamental principle of xray and CT

density - whitist to blackist, bone/metal - soft tissue - fat - air

9

orthogonal projections' abilities

help to localize objects, identify pathology

10

neumoperitoneum

appears as asymmetry in thorax- air in peritoneum

11

2 parts of anatomy of thoracic cavity

pleural cavities, mediastinum

12

contents of pleural cavities

pleura- made up of lfat layer of mesothelial cells and uspporitng tissues
lungs- respiratory organs

13

2 layers of pleura

parietal layer- lines inner surface of chest cavity; visceral layer- covers surface of lungs

14

pleural reflections-recesses

areas of pleural spcae where there's no visceral pleura/lung between the 2 parietal layers

place where fluid first accumulates

15

costodiaphragmatic recess (CP angle)

largest pleural space, where no visceral pleura/lung between 2 parietal layers, so 2 parietal layers meet; fluid can accumulate here

cannot see costophrenic angle if fluid accumulates

16

pleural effusion

when fluid accumulates in pleural space

pt will present w/ shortness of breath

17

pneumothorax

pleural air - air in lung

pt will present w/ acute onset shortness of breath

ie if person gets stabbed

pt's lung will collapse

18

why lung isn't collapsed in chest

negative interthoracic pressure

19

how to treat pneumothorax

chest tube- causes lung to reexpand itself

insert in 2nd intercostal space

20

hydroneumothorax

blood and air in thorax because of acute trauma

21

tension pneumothorax

air only goes IN- one way communication w/ atmosphere

22

dual blood supply to lungs

pulmonary arteries - blood from RA-RV-MPA-Rt and Lt PAs = deoxygenated blood

bronchial arteries- blood from aorta/branches = oxygenated blood

23

pneumonia

opacity in lung

pt will present with coughing with sputum, fever, elevated WBC count

24

mediastinum contents

thymus, heart in pericardial sac, major vessels, trachea, esophagus, nerves and lymphatics

25

heart position in chest - 3 moves

apex points down, forward and to the left

base sits over diaphragm w/ right more forward than left

major vessels enter/exit posteriorly at base

26

heart margins on CXR

right heart border- SVC, RA, IVC (NOT RV- HEART IS ROTATED!)

left heart border- aortic arch, pulmonary trunk, LA, LV

27

pericardial effusion can look like

an abnormally big heart- cardiomegaly

28

superior mediastinum contains

R and L braciocephalic veins

thoracic aorta and major branches

superior vena cava

trachea

esophagus

thymus

phrenic and vagus nerves

left recurrent laryngeal nerve (passes under arch)

29

destocardia

heart reversed in chest if heart tube bends wrong way during embryological development

30

at inlet level, how many holes do you see in superior mediastinum

5

31

svc syndrome

large mass narrows superior vena cava

pt presents with: rapid heart rate; bilateral neck, face, arms swollen

32

pericarditis

inflammatory process of pericardium

33

pulmonary embolism

blood clots in R and L pulmonary arteries

34

phrenic nerve supplies/root value

diaphragm/ C3, 4, 5