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Flashcards in Lecture 28 In Class Deck (31):
1

What is another name for fibular?

Peroneal. 

2

What are the muscles of hte posterior compartment of the knee?

What are their actions?

  • Hamstring Muscles
    • semitendinosus
    • Semimembranosus
    • ​Biceps femoris
    • Adductor Magnus

extensors of the hip, flexors of the knee

all originate on ischial tuberosity!!!

3

What are the roots for sciatic nerve?

What does it do?

  • L4-S3
  • Innervate muscles of poterior thigh

 

  • Tibial part (most of them)
    • ​semitendinosus
    • semimenrbanosus
    • lg head of biceps femoris
    • hamstring part of add magnus

4

Q image thumb

Semitendinosus (has a true tendon)

  1. ischial tuberosity--> medial tibia (with gracilis and sartoris)
  2. tibial sciatic (L4-S3)
  3. extend hip and flex knee

hamstring muscle

Posterior thigh muscle

5

What is the muscle to the left of the line?

Q image thumb

Semimembranosus (looks like a tendon)

  1. ischial tuberosity --> medial tenondon condyl fibers refelct back up to fossa and become oblique tendon
  2. tibial part of sciatic (L4-S3) 
  3. extend hip, flex knee

hamstring muscle

Posterior thigh muscle

6

Q image thumb

Biceps Femoris Long Head

  1. ischial tuberosity--> head of fibula
  2. tibial part of sciatic nerve (L4-S3)
  3. extend hip, flex knee

Hamstring muscle

poterior thigh muscle

7

What muscle is this? 

  1. What is its orgin and insertion?
  2. What is its innervation
  3. What is its actions?

Q image thumb

Biceps Short head

  1. lateral lip of linea aspera--> ******head of fibula********
  2. common fibular part of scatitc  (L4-S2)
  3. flex knee 
    1. only one that does not extend the hip

Hamstring muscle

posterior thigh muscle

8

What muscle is this? 

  1. What is is Orgin/ insertion?
  2. What is its innervation
  3. What is its actions?

Q image thumb

Adductor magnus (hamstring head)

  1. ischial tuberosity-->adductor tuberical of femor 
  2. tibial part of sciatic nerve (L4-S3)
  3. extend the hip 

Most of the floor of the posterior thigh

Hamstring muscle

posterior compartment of the thigh 

9

What is pes anserinus?

What is another name for it?

  • conjointed tendon of: 
    • sartorius m
    • Gracilis
    • semitendinosus
  • anteromedial tibial

A image thumb
10

what are the attachments for these places

Q image thumb

  • addcutor tubericle: adductor magnus hamstring part
  •  

on medial side from top to bottom,

gracilis

semitendenosis

sartouris

11

What is the blood supply of the posterior thigh?

A image thumb
12

What are the boundreis of the popliteal fossa?

Where is it located?

  • Sup-med:
    1. ​​ semimembranosus
    2. semitendiosus
  • Sup-lat​​

​            3.biceps femoris

  • Inf-med

             4.medial head of gastrocnemius

  • Inf-lat

             5.lat head of gastrocnemius

             6. plantaris

POSTERIOR FEMUR

 

  • Roof
    1. ​ popliteal fascia
      • poterior femoral cutaneus
      • medial and lateral sural nn.
      • (f/ tibial {medial}
      • common fibular nerve {lateral nerve}
      • small saphenosus v --> popliteal v
  • Floor
    1. ​ femur
    2. oblique popliteal lig f/ semitenenosis 
      • stabalize the knee
    3. popliteus 

 

 

A image thumb
13

What are the contents of the popliteal fossa?

  1. tibial nerve  (L4-S3)
    1.  medial sural nerve
  2. popliteal vein
    1. small saphenous vein
  3. popliteal artery
    1. genicular anastomosis
    2. Common fibular nerve (L4-S2)
      1. lateral sural nerve

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14

  1. What type of joint is the tibiofemoral joint?
  2. Articulations
  3. What does stibility depend on?

  1. modified hinge joint
  2. lateral/medial femoral condyly--> lateral/medial tibial plateau
  3. ligaments and surround muscles and tendons

15

Genu varum vrs. Genu Valgum 

Genu Varum

  • small Q angle bowleg

Genu Valgum

  • Large Q angle Knock-Knee
  • can increase potential for patellofemoral syndrome

 

Q angle: perpindicular line of gravity and asis line 

 

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16

What are the movements of the knee and what does it?

  • Extension
    • Quadriceps femoris
      • rectus femoris
      • vastus medialis
      • vastus lateralis 
      • vastus inermedeus
  • Flexion
    • Hamstring
      • semimembronosus
      • semitendenosis 
    • Biceps femoris (both heads) 
    • Grastrocnemius
    • Popliteus
    • Gracilis
    • Sartouris 

17

Knee Flexion (as in the contacting surfaces) 

Round surfaces on the femoral condyles 

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18

 knee extension as related to surfaces

flas surfaces of femoral condyle with tibial plataue

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19

Locking and unlocking of the knee

  • Locking the knee
    • ​during extension passive locking with slight medial rotation femur on tibia (screw home mechinisum) 
  • Unlocking the knee
    • tibia is already exteneded a slight lateral rotation on it will initiate flextion. 
      • flexion is inniciated by popliteus 

20

Bursa of the knee

  • Suprapatellar bursa
    • ​extension of synovial capsual 
    • fibers from vastus medialsis 
    • apex attached articular genus m 
  • Prepatellar bursa
    • b/t pellar and skin 
    • kneeling down 
    • Housemaid's knee
  • subcutaneous and deep infrapatellar bursae
    • protect pellar ligametn from anterior petellar ligament 

21

What are baker's cyst?

What is another name for it?

  • When the synovial capsual will go back into posterior fosa and synovial fluid will go it
  • due to knee problems, cartligde prest 

22

Extracapsular Knee ligaments

Can see without going into knee joint 

  • ​​olique popliteal ligament
    • posterior 
    • extension of semimembronosus
  • arcutare popliteal ligament
    • over popliteus muscle
  • patellar ligament
    • attach to ---
  • lateral collateral ligament
    • prevents varus (outward) deformity
    • seperated f/ miniscus by popliteal
  • medial collateral ligament
    • prevents valgus (inward) deformity 

23

Intracapsular knee ligaments

  • Anterior cruciate lig
    • anterior tibieal--> lateral condyle of femur
    • prevent hyperextension
    • prevents anterior displacement of fixed tibia
  • Posterior cruciate ligament
    • prevents posterior displacemetn of fixed tibia
    • prevents hyper flexion of knee
    • posterior tibial--> medial condyle of femur

24

What is Drawers Sign and how do you test for it?

What does it test for?

  • Anterior Draw test
    • free tibial slides anteriorly on fixed femurs
    • anterior cruciate ligaments damage tested
  • Posterior Draw test
    • free tibial slides posteriorly under fixed femus
    • posterior cricuate ligaments 

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25

What are the menisci of the knee?

between femur and tibia to support so we dont rub tibia and femur

  • Medial Meniscus
    • attached to capsule 
    • attached to tibial collateral ligament 
  • Lateral Meniscus 
    • smaller and more mobile 
      • because has popliteal tendon 
    • popliteus tendon passes between menisucu capusle
  • Ligaments
    • transverse ligament of knee
    • posterior meniscofemoral ligament
    • inside the capsule but outside synovial cavity

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26

How do you test for Meniscus tears?

relativly a vascular so they dont heal well

Steinmann test

  • tear in central not to bad
  • periferal need to be stiched. 

27

What is an unhappy triad injury?

classic description

  • atnerior cruciate ligament
  • medial collateral ligament 
  • medial meniscus 

28

What is the innervation of the knee?

  • Anterior knee
    • Femoral n (L2-L4)
  • Posterior knee
    • Tibial N (L4-S3)
  • Lateral Knee
    • Common fibular (peroneal) (L4-S2)
  • Medial Knee
    • Obturator n (L2-4)

29

Blood supply of the knee

Genicular anastomosis 

  • descending genicular f/ femoral a
  • genicluar brances fo popliteal a (go into joint capsule) 
    • superior lateral  (above gastrocniemus)
    • superior medial 
    • inferior lateral (below gastrocniemus) 
    • inferior medial 
    • middle genicluar (may or maynot be there)
  • anterior tibial-->  recurrent and circumflex of fibular braches of tibial a 
  • descending branch of lateral circumflex femoral a. 

A image thumb
30

Patellofemoral joint

Diseases?

  • between petellar and two condyles of fibula
  • modify plane joint 
  • protect knee joint 
  • RUNNERS KNEE!

31

What  happenes in a total knee replacement?