Lecture 29: Nervous System Development III Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 29: Nervous System Development III Deck (23):
1

What is the difference between the positioning of grey matter in the brain vs spinal cord?

Spinal cord: gray matter centrally located
Brain: gray matter in cortices built on top of white matter

2

Classical definition of a cortex

Consists of multiple layers of gray matter and is built from the inside out

3

What is the role of radial glial cells in building a cortex?

Migrating bipolar neurons uses long process of radial glial cell as a guiding mechanism to reach surface where they can begin to layer the cortex

4

What nervous tracts does the basal plate give rise to?

Motor tracts

5

What nervous tracts does the alar plate give rise to?

Sensory tracts

6

Name the major derivatives of the metencephalon

Pons, Cerebellum

7

What induces the rhombic lips?

Interaction between roof plate and neural tube via BMP signaling

8

What are the superior cerebellar peduncles?

Massive fiber bundles b/w cerebellum and mesencephalon

9

What are the major derivatives of the mesencephalon?

Tectum, superior and inferior colliculi

10

What is the function of Otx-2 in relation to Shh?

Confines Shh to basal part of midbrain

11

Where do cerebral peduncles form, what is their function?

Ventrolateral region of mesencephalon; carry fibers b/w hemispheres and spinal cord

12

What are the major derivatives of the diencephalon?

Epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus

13

Whatis the Arnold-Chiari malformation and how does it relate to hydrocephalus?

Cerebellum herniates into foramen magnum, preventing escape of CSF from skull - leads to hydrocephalus

14

Rachischisis

Blatant closure defect of spinal cord

15

What substance, when elevated in amniotic fluid, is diagnostic of closure defects?

Alpha-fetoprotein

16

List closure defects from least to most serious

Spina bifida occulta, spina bifdia meningocele, spina bifida myelomeningocele, rachischisis, cranioschisis

17

What molecule produced by the notochord is responsible for inducing the floor plate of the neural tube?

A. Hoxa-5
B. Retinoic acid
C. Pax-3
D. Msx-1
E. Shh

E. Shh

18

The cell bodies of motor neurons of spinal nerves arise from the:

A. basal plate
B. marginal zone
C. floor plate
D. roof plate
E. alar plate

A. basal plate

19

An infant with a tuft of hair over the lumbar region of the vertebral column undergoes surgery for a congenital anomaly in that region. During surgery, it was found that the dura and arachnoid layers over the spinal cord were complete, but that the neural arches of several vertebrae were missing. What condition did the infant have?

A. Meningocele
B. Myelomeningocele
C. Encephalocele
D. Spina bifida occulta
E. Rachischisis

D. Spina bifida occulta

20

Growth cones adhere strongly to a substrate containing:

A. Ach
B. Laminin
C. Epinephrine
D. Norepinephrine
E. Shh

B. Laminin

21

Complete failure of the neural tube to close in the region of the spinal cord is:

A. SB occulta
B. Meningocele
C. Cranioschisis
D. Rachischisis
E. Myelomeningocele

D. Rachischisis

22

Rhombomeres are segmental divisions of the:

A. Forebrain
B. Midbrain
C. Hindbrain
D. Spinal cord
E. None of the above

C. Hindbrain

23

Rathke's pouch arises from:

A. Diencephalon
B. Stomodeal ectoderm
C. Mesencephalon
D. Pharyngeal endoderm
E. Infundibulum

B. Stomodeal ectoderm