Lecture 37: Urinary System Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 37: Urinary System Development Deck (19):
1

Which embryonic kidneys are the first to develop?

Pronephric kidneys

2

From what germ layer do the pronephric kidneys differentiate from?

Intermediate mesoderm

3

Which embryonic kidneys are non-functional in mammals, but required for the rest of the excretory system to develop?

Pronephros

4

What is the role of retinoic acid in the induction of the pronephric ducts?

Sets expression limits of genes

5

What is the role of Hox4-11 genes in the induction of the pronephric ducts?

Determines craniocaudal limits of early urinary system

6

What is induced by transcription factors Pax-2 and Pax-8 during induction of pronephric ducts?

Lim-1

7

What is the result of Lim-1 acting on intermediate mesoderm during pronephric duct induction?

Causes aggregation of mesenchymal cells in intermediate mesoderm into pronephric ducts

8

What embryonic kidney begins formation of the functional kidney in most vertebrate embryos (including humans)?

Mesonephros

9

How do the mesonephric tubules differ physically from the pronephric tubules?

Mesonephric tubules are longer and sigmoid in shape.

10

What forms from the mesonephric duct?

Ureteric bud/metanephric diverticulum

11

What does the metanephric diverticulum give rise to?

Adult ureter, renal pelvis, collecting tubules

12

What forms from the metanephrogenic blastemata?

Renal tubules of adult kidney

13

Explain the relationship between development of metanephrogenic blastema and ureteric diverticula?

Neither one can develop in absence of the other (reciprocal inductive effects)

14

Uroplakins

Make ureter epithelium impermeable to water

15

What is the function of Slit-2/Robo-2 with respect to the ureteric bud outgrowth?

Represses GDNF in anterior regions, thus keeping ureteric bud in posterior location

16

Name the urinary sistem anomaly that can be caused by renal agenesis and oligohydramnios. This anamoly results in flattened face/ears, tapering fingers, pulmonary hypoplasia and is usually incompatible with life.

Potter Sequence

17

Horseshoe kidney

Kidneys fused at inferior poles; usually asymptomatic but may cause positional abnormalities of other organs

18

Polycystic kidney disease

Many cysts present in parenchyma of kidney; due to mutations in PKD1/PKD2 which make proteins polycystin1/polycystin2

19

Extrophy of Bladder

Urinary bladder opens broadly into abdominal wall; may involve phallus in males (epispadias). May be due to reduction in Shh.