Fermentation ability is poorly developed - no need
High protein/fat, low carb (energy dense)
Digestion due to enzymes (not fermentation)
Mixture of starch, protein and fat
Fermentation possible but not well developed - humans
Mostly cellulose and starch
More complex GI tract
What is an ungulate?
4 locations for microbial fermentation
1. Pregastric (before true stomach)
2. Small intestines (post gastric) not very efficient
3. Cecum (post-gastric)
4. Colon (post-gastric)
How have pre-gastric fermentators accommodated fermentation?
Enlarged stomaches or outpouches with nonsecretory part
What are pre-gastric fermentators known as
- large outpouching
How fast can a hippo run?
How does the hippo differ from the beaver as transitional animals?
Hippo has secretory area partioned off, whereas the beaver and rat do not
What are pseudoruminants?
- 3 chambered stomach
- Forestomach - interconnecting compartments (reticulum and rumen)
- lacks omasum
What type of fermentation do pseudoruminants and ruminants perform?
6 benefits of ruminant fermentation
More efficient and thorough fermentation of plant material
Can rechew plant material by ruminating
Can convert low-value plant protein into high-value microbial protein
B-vitamins produced by bacteria in rumen can be absorbed
Detoxification of plant compounds before systemic absorption
Allows colon to be used primarily for water absorption
Disadvantage of ruminant fermentation
Slow transit of meterial in GIT
What causes for slow transit time of material in GIT
1. Forestomach has limited capacity
2. Digesta cant pass into omasum until small particles (2-4mm)
3. Poor quality feed will pass slowly
3 types of ruminants
Those that selectively eat mainly high quality plant material (concentrates) such as grain and leaves
Those that indiscriminately eat most plant material, including high-fibre portions
What do camelids lack?