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Flashcards in Lecture 3 Deck (19):
1

Carnivore digestion

Fermentation ability is poorly developed - no need

High protein/fat, low carb (energy dense)

Shorter GI

Digestion due to enzymes (not fermentation)

2

Omnivore digestion

Mixture of starch, protein and fat

Fermentation possible but not well developed - humans

3

Herbivore digestion

Mostly cellulose and starch

Fermentation required

More complex GI tract

4

What is an ungulate?

Hoofed mammals

5

4 locations for microbial fermentation

1. Pregastric (before true stomach)

2. Small intestines (post gastric) not very efficient

3. Cecum (post-gastric)

4. Colon (post-gastric)

6

How have pre-gastric fermentators accommodated fermentation?

Enlarged stomaches or outpouches with nonsecretory part

7

What are pre-gastric fermentators known as

 

Transitional animals

- large outpouching

8

How fast can a hippo run?

50km/h

9

How does the hippo differ from the beaver as transitional animals?

Hippo has secretory area partioned off, whereas the beaver and rat do not

10

What are pseudoruminants?

Camelids

- 3 chambered stomach

- Forestomach - interconnecting compartments (reticulum and rumen)

- lacks omasum

 

11

What type of fermentation do pseudoruminants and ruminants perform?

Pregastric

12

Pregastric fermentators

Transitional animals

Camelids

Ruminants

13

6 benefits of ruminant fermentation

More efficient and thorough fermentation of plant material

Can rechew plant material by ruminating

Can convert low-value plant protein into high-value microbial protein

B-vitamins produced by bacteria in rumen can be absorbed

Detoxification of plant compounds before systemic absorption

Allows colon to be used primarily for water absorption

14

Disadvantage of ruminant fermentation

Slow transit of meterial in GIT

 

15

What causes for slow transit time of material in GIT

1. Forestomach has limited capacity

2. Digesta cant pass into omasum until small particles (2-4mm)

3. Poor quality feed will pass slowly

16

3 types of ruminants

Browsers 

Grazers

Intermediates

17

Define browsers

Those that selectively eat mainly high quality plant material (concentrates) such as grain and leaves

- deer

- giraffe

18

Define grazers

Those that indiscriminately eat most plant material, including high-fibre portions

- cattle

- muskoxen

19

What do camelids lack?

Omasum