What are ionophores?
Oral antimicrobial that alter cell membrane permeability, selectively killing Gram-positive bacteria
4 benefits of using ionophores?
Increase feed efficiency - favors propionate, less methane
Prevent acute lactic acidose
Prevent frothy/grain bloat
Prevent ketosis in lactating dairy cows
3 factors detrimental to rumen flora?
Abnormal acidity - grain overload
Poor quality feed - impaction
2 major types of CHO?
Difference between NDF and ADF?
NDF - Neutral detergent fiber, digestible portion of fibre
ADF- Acid detergent fiber, Least digestible portion
What is fibre and what is its main function?
Slowly digested structural material
Essential to form the rumen mat
3 non fibre CHO
Digestibility of non-fibre CHO
Completely digest by microbes
Fermentation much more rapid
Straw vs Grain
Straw - High in structural CHO
Grain - Highi in non-structural CHO
What are legumes high in?
What are VFAs used for my microbes?
Affect of high starch diet on VFAs?
Increase total VFA, however, increases proportionaly the amount of propionate
Affect of propionate on milk content?
Increase starch in feed, increase propionate. Propionate is glucogenic, increase lactose production which causes for an increase in osmotic drive of milk pulling in water, increase milk production however decrease fat content of milk
Carbon structure of VFAs
Butyrate - 4C
Propionate - 3C
Acetate - 2C
Absorption Rate of VFAs?
Butyrate > Propionate > Acetate