What is high urea in urine a sign of>
Poor urea balance
Optimizing bacterial protein synthesis requires a balance of what ingredients in the rumen?
What does the efficiency with which dietary energy is used for protein synthesis depend upon?
Balance between energy and nitrogen sources.
What amount of RUP should you not exceed in feed?
3 ways to maximize rumen protein production
1. Feed a compbination of RDP and RUP
2. Increase the number of feedings/day
3. Insure adequate amounts and variety of CHOs
Would it be a good idea to combine high [urea] with high roughage diet?
No, high roughage diet will not have enough energy to convert NH3 into protein and you get toxicity. You also have a high pH in rumen from roughage which increases passive diffusion
What to ruminants do with unsaturated fats?
Convert it to saturated
Fatty acids from plants are usually in which isoform?
2 parts of microbial lipid metabolism
- occurs first
- Ester linkages are broken
- occurs second
- Add hydrogen to unsaturate fatty acids
What performs the majority of hydrolysis of lipids in ruminants?
How are most lipids absorbed?
alpha - glycerophosophate pathway
What is biohydrogenation?
Bacteria add hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids, converting fatty acid double bonds to sing bonds (Saturation)
What is the most abundant "natural" TFA produced in the rumen?
18:1 trans isomer vaccenic acid
If the biohydrogenation of linolenic acid is completed, what do you get?
5 problems with supplementng a large amount of fat in cattle ration
1. Fat coats feed material, cannot be fermented - decreases VFA production
2. Decrease rumen motility through CCK
3. LCFAs are toxic to bacteria
4. Consitency of feed material is compromised
5. Feed goes rancid