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Flashcards in Lecture 7 Deck (14):
1

Lactic acid absorption?

Cant be absorbed at high rates due to low pKa. Not until pH of rumen drops substantially can lactate be absorbed from rumen

- Grain overload, lactic acid produced rapidly h/e cant be absorbed quickly

2

What to do if ammonia toxicity occurs?

Give vinegar

- drops rumen pH forming NH4 (ammonium) which is absorbed more slowly. Thus decreasing amount of ammonia systemically present

3

How are VFAs delivered from rumen to liver?

Portal Vein

4

What is beta-hydroxybutyrate used for?

Used by most tissus for energy

- Provides initial carbon skeleton for fatty acids in milk

5

What happens to propionate and lactate at liver?

Propionate --> oxaloacetate ---> glucose

Lactate ---> pyruvate ---> glucose

6

What happens to acetate at liver?

Forms acetyl-CoA

- Acetyl-CoA + Oxaloacetate = citric acid

- Used in fatty acid production

7

What produces majority of the ruminants maintenance energy?

VFAs

- Glucose production

- TCA cycle

8

How much of dietary protein is degraded by microbes?

50%

9

How do bacteria degrade protein?

Only 10 - 40% do

- Extracellular protease degrde protein into peptide fragments

- Absorbed into bacterial cell

- Degraded to amino acids

10

Where are bypass proteins broken down?

Abomasum/intestine

11

What are the sources of protein absorbed in ruminant intestine?

By-pass protein

Microbial protein

12

What is biuret?

Condensation compound of urea, equivalent to two molecules of urea less one of ammonia

13

What is wrong with NPN source of N

Ammonia - toxic

4-methylimidazole (neurotoxic)

Ammonium overwhelms liver

Excess ammonium affects the CNS

14

How to prevent bonkers cow? 

Feed urea @ <3% of concentrate, ~ 1% of total diet

Slowly adapt to NPN feed