Lecture 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 4 Deck (21):
1

Grazers ____ browse but browsers ____ graze?

Grazers can browse but browser cant graze

2

An animal that eats a low quality forage compared to an animal that eats a high quality forage will require?

Longer retention time, larger rumen

3

Compare size of browsers and grazers, why?

Browsers are larger than grazers due to the rate of GI passage, browsers can move in more high quality feed faster

4

What affect does body weight have on fecal dry matter in ruminants?

As body weight increases, fecal dry matter decreases

5

How does fecal dry matter compare between Browsers and grazers?

Browsers have a larger absorptive capacity and therefore have an increased fecal dry matter compared to grazers

6

What limits grazer body size?

They eat higher fiber diets

Fibre digestion requires a larger forestomach and longer retetion time

7

Relationship between quality of feed and nonstructural % DM?

High quality feed has a higher nonstructural % DM

8

What causes impaction?

Ingestion of feed stuff that has low nonstructural % DM

9

Capacity of rumen

Cattle

Sheep

100-225 L in cattle

10-25 L in sheep

10

affect fetus has on feed intake

Fetus reduces amount of space of rumen

11

Pregnancy toxaemia in sheep

Partly a rumen fill issue

Suspected in  late pregnant ewes - show nervous signs - die 2-7 days

starts with negative energy balance

decreased rumen capacity

build up of ketones in blood

12

What is the omasal opening?

2-4mm in cattle

1-2 mm in sheep

13

What occurs to particles in rumen as fermentation occurs?

Gas removed from forage so density increases

Denser particles pass through rumen and reticulum faster than light particles

14

Temperature of rumen?

similar to body temp ~39C

15

Why is temperature of rumen important?

When washing the rumen watch the temperature of water, large volumes of cold water can cause problems

16

Rumen pH

around 6-7

17

What does rumen pH vary with?

Diet (high concentrate decrease pH)

Level of feed intake

Time after feeding

Processing of feed (higher processed feed decrease pH)

18

Why does grain have the pH affect that it does?

More readily fermentable - more rapid production of VFAs

Strep. bovis and lactobacilli grow faster than other species, they produce lactic acid

19

Why does roughage have the effect on pH it does?

More saliva stimulated, more rumination

20

What does lactipro do?

Allows to feed higher concentrate and get higher efficiency

21

how does frequency of feeding affect pH?

More frequent feeding causes for less fluctuation in pH