Grazers ____ browse but browsers ____ graze?
Grazers can browse but browser cant graze
An animal that eats a low quality forage compared to an animal that eats a high quality forage will require?
Longer retention time, larger rumen
Compare size of browsers and grazers, why?
Browsers are larger than grazers due to the rate of GI passage, browsers can move in more high quality feed faster
What affect does body weight have on fecal dry matter in ruminants?
As body weight increases, fecal dry matter decreases
How does fecal dry matter compare between Browsers and grazers?
Browsers have a larger absorptive capacity and therefore have an increased fecal dry matter compared to grazers
What limits grazer body size?
They eat higher fiber diets
Fibre digestion requires a larger forestomach and longer retetion time
Relationship between quality of feed and nonstructural % DM?
High quality feed has a higher nonstructural % DM
What causes impaction?
Ingestion of feed stuff that has low nonstructural % DM
Capacity of rumen
100-225 L in cattle
10-25 L in sheep
affect fetus has on feed intake
Fetus reduces amount of space of rumen
Pregnancy toxaemia in sheep
Partly a rumen fill issue
Suspected in late pregnant ewes - show nervous signs - die 2-7 days
starts with negative energy balance
decreased rumen capacity
build up of ketones in blood
What is the omasal opening?
2-4mm in cattle
1-2 mm in sheep
What occurs to particles in rumen as fermentation occurs?
Gas removed from forage so density increases
Denser particles pass through rumen and reticulum faster than light particles
Temperature of rumen?
similar to body temp ~39C
Why is temperature of rumen important?
When washing the rumen watch the temperature of water, large volumes of cold water can cause problems
What does rumen pH vary with?
Diet (high concentrate decrease pH)
Level of feed intake
Time after feeding
Processing of feed (higher processed feed decrease pH)
Why does grain have the pH affect that it does?
More readily fermentable - more rapid production of VFAs
Strep. bovis and lactobacilli grow faster than other species, they produce lactic acid
Why does roughage have the effect on pH it does?
More saliva stimulated, more rumination
What does lactipro do?
Allows to feed higher concentrate and get higher efficiency
how does frequency of feeding affect pH?
More frequent feeding causes for less fluctuation in pH