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Flashcards in Lecture 3 Deck (40):
1

noncovalent interaction between two molecules that are so close together that they can experience weak attractive forces

van der Waals

2

macromolecules formed by polymerization

polypeptides, polynucleotides, and polysaccharides

3

matter is made of combinations of -- such as hydrogen, oxygen, or carbon

elements

4

-- is the smallest particle of an element

atom

5

atoms are linked together in groups to form --

molecules

6

all the characteristics of a cell depend on the -- it contains

molecules

7

electrons -- to balance out the positively charged nucleus

move around

8

A -- is X grams of a substance, where X is its relative molecular mass

mole

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a mole will contain -- molecules of the substance

6 x 10^23

10

-- have a concentration of 1 mole of the substance in 1 liter of solution

molar solutions

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-- constitute 99% of goal atoms in the human body

C, H, O, N

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the -- determine how atoms interact

outermost electrons

13

in order for an atom to be -- its outermost shell must be filled in

stable

14

how strong an electron's attraction is to a nucleus

electronegativity

15

EN > 1.7

ionic bond

16

sharing of electrons

covalent bond

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transfer of electrons

ionic bond

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covalent bonds are much -- then noncovalent interactions

stronger and more stable

19

pi bonds cannot --

rotate

20

EN

nonpolar

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Covalent bonds have -- bond length than noncovalent bonds

shorter

22

iconic bonds not as strong in living things as they are in a --

vacuum

23

Van der Waals interactions are caused by --

transient dipoles

24

hydrogen bond is the interaction of a partially positively charged H atom in a molecular dipole with an unpaired -- from another atom

N, O, and (F)
highly electronegative atoms

25

hydrophobic force is caused by pushing of -- out of water

nonpolar surfaces

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a macromolecule is folded into its preferred stable conformation by --

noncovalent interactions

27

cell is -- water and -- chemicals

70% and 30%

28

of the chemicals of the cell inorganic ions make up

1%

29

energetically unfavorable -- releases water to make molecules

condensation

30

energetically favorable -- requires water to break molecules

hydrolysis

31

phospholipids are --

amphipathtic

32

saturated fatty acids

single bonds

33

unsaturated fatty acids

double bonds

34

properties of fats depend on their --

fatty acid side chains

35

purines

A, G (2 rings)

36

pyrimidines

U, T, C (1 ring)

37

water properties

- solid less dense (ordered crystal though H bonds that spaces molecules farther apart)
- great solvent
- surface tension
- cohesion/adhesion
- high heat capacity

38

water molecules are continuously exchanging protons with each other to form

hydronium ion and hydroxyl ion

39

donate protons

acid

40

accept protons

base