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Define child mental and motor development

Children’s cognitive, language, motor, social and emotional development, between conception and age 8 years.


Child mortality has dropped to what %?

3.9% (number of children born alive who die before 5)
-> 96/100 live beyond their first birthday


What factors may influence mental development?

Health -> definitely does
Nutrition -> probably does, but not certain
Stimulation -> also uncertain link


What strategies have been used to enhance mental development through nutrition? (6)

1. Fortification
2. Supplementation (meal replacement)
3. Food that expands dietary diversity
4. Nutrition education
5. Agriculture
6. School feeding


Which factors influence whether school feeding is effective for enhancing mental development?

1. Whether the food being given enhances dietary diversity
2. timing of the food (e.g. before class)
3. whether the children also get quality stimulation in the school


What does Adequate Nutrition mean?

you are getting 4 or more out of the seven food categories. (note only 4 in my notes)
1. Grains
2. orange fruit and veg (vitamin A)
3. other veg
4. animal source food (egg, milk, meat)


What evidence is there that fortification improves mental development?

Evidence that iodine supplementation does, but little evidence for other fortification (e.g. iron)


What evidence is there that supplementation improves mental development?

Studies underway, evidence still lacking


What evidence is there that increasing diversity in diet improves mental development?

evidence that this is more effective in younger children and also depends on quality of schooling


What are 2 months of measuring language and cognitive development?

1. Ask Mothers
2. Ask the child (Bayley scales)


Which milestones did mothers in the US and kenya agree on the timing off?

Which were discrepant?

Agree (or very close):
-eat solids

Disagree (US mothers thought these occurred much sooner):
-understand language


Roughly what % of children are not attaining their mental developmental potential?



What are the consequences of children not attaining their mental potential?

1. Children are not learning skills for their age.
2. Children are not sufficiently progressing in school to ensure a better life than their parents had.
3. Health is negatively affected.
4. Productivity of the country is limited.


what is Developmental potential?

the ability to think, learn, remember, relate, and articulate ideas appropriate to age and level of maturity


What do ERP/EEG tell us?

Tells about which brain parts are relevant for specific functions
E.g. Broca, wernicke


Study about parenting practice in uganda, mothers who provided playtime stimulation to 6-24m old

what % had provided.... (5 domains)

Gross motor (ball) 48%
Dramatic play (doll) 35%
Simple eye coordination (rattle) 35%
2 piece eye hand 14%
New toy in the past month 6%


Study about parenting practice in uganda, mothers who provided verbal stimulation to 6-24m old

what % had provided.... (4 domains)

Name objects 63%
Teaches something 38%
Tells story 19%
Talks about books 17%


According to the WHO 2018 health assembly what is essential for for development?

Early learning and responsive care


What is Nurturing Care and what are its 5 components?

it is the term used to integrate caregiving for health, growth and development

1. Health
2. Nutrition
3. Responsive caregiving
4. Security and safety
5. Early learning


How are school readiness skills measured?

International Development and Early Learning Assessment

assesses verbal and math/spatial skills


What does United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Org (UNESCO) focus on?

preschool for 3 to 6 years of age


What is the evidence that pre-school interventions benefit children? (4)

1. Meta-analyses yield strong effect sizes of attending vs not attending pre-primary

2. Moderate effect sizes of attending a higher-quality vs a lower-quality pre-primary

3. Child outcomes are better if an improved program is offered in language or math

4. Free play with more resources benefits children


What does the quality of pre school interventions in LMICs depend on?

1. does NOT depend on GPD
2. DOES depend on culture/what is valued
3. DOES depend on class size


What are important Measures of Early Learning Environment? (6)

1. Environmental safety, hygiene, sanitation
2. Teacher-child interaction
3. Language
4. Numeracy
5. Science/Nature
6. Play


Should funds be a deterrent for pre-school programs?

No - money is available if governments provide a plan


What is the evidence supporting child development programs that promote stimulation for children (for children 0-3)

1. Evidence is moderately strong and consistent showing that parenting programs enhance cognitive and language development (see the reading).

2. Evidence that they change parental behaviour

3. Lead to improved mental development in children

4. Have a stronger effect than nutrition

5. But are more time consuming and labour intensive