Lecture 6 - Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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1

What is the Greatest global inequality in?

maternal deaths

2

What is the Maternal Mortality Ratio?

# deaths during pregnancy and 42 days postpartum
OVER
100,000 live births

3

What is the maternal mortality ratio in developed vs developing countries?

developed: 12/100,000
developing: 205/100,000

4

What is the maternal mortality ratio in Canada?

6/100,000

5

Which country has the highest maternal mortality ratio?

Sierra Leone 1,360/100,000

6

Every day, how many women die from preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth?

830

7

What % of all maternal deaths occur in developing countries?

99%

8

Between 1990 and 2018, maternal mortality worldwide dropped by what %?

50%

9

what is the sustainable development goal related to global maternal mortality?

Between 2016 and 2030, the target is to reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100 000 live births

10

Half of all the gains in maternal mortality can be attributed to?

gains made in india

11

What is the Lifetime risk of maternal mortality in high income countries? low income?

high income: 1/5000
low income: 1/200
*note that this risk is also affected by fertility

12

What could potentially bias estimates of the causes maternal mortality?

the fact that only 30% of women in lower income countries give birth in hospitals and if they die in their home, it's possible the cause of death will be inaccurate

13

What are the 6 top cause of maternal mortality (in order)

1. Haemorrhage (35%)
2. Hypertension (18%)
3. Indirect (18%)
4. Other direct (12%)
5. Abortion (9%)
6. Sepsis (8%)

14

What is the Mexico City Policy?

Also referred to as the gag rule

it is a US policy that blocks US federal funding for NGOs that provide counselling, referrals, advocate to decriminalize abortion or expand abortion services.

15

What % of women worldwide report sexual violence?

35%

16

What did a south african survey find about attitudes about forced sex?

62% of adolescent boys saw nothing wrong with forced sex

17

Why is Sweden rated so highly in world rankings of sexual violence?

probably because of differences in reporting, rather than it actually being more common (less stigmatized)

18

What % of Sierra Leone’s women face sexual or physical violence during their lifetime?

almost 50%

19

What % of Sierra Leone’s women have been victims of genital cutting?

90%

20

Abortion is still illegal in how many countries?

3

21

How many unsafe abortions occur every year?

how many deaths result?

20 million

70,000

22

What is the second cause of death for 15-19 year-old girls globally?

Complications during pregnancy and childbirth

23

How many girls aged 15-19 give birth every year?
How many under 15?

15-19: 16 million
under 15: 1 million

24

What strategies have been tried to make home deliveries safer?

1. Trained Traditional birth attendants
2. Skilled birth attendants

25

Which methods for improving the safety of deliveries have failed?

which have worked?

Trained Traditional birth attendants -> No impact

Skilled birth attendants: 3-6 months of paramedic training and then additional training -> still little impact

The main thing that improves outcomes in delivering in a hospital or health facility, so now the focus is on encouraging that whenever possible

26

What are the leading causes of under 5 mortality? (top 2)

1. Preterm birth
2. Pneumonia

27

What % of under 5 deaths are in the neonatal period?

45%

28

Where do over 80% of under 5 deaths occur?

sub saharan africa and south east asia

29

How many deaths each year are averted by vaccination? How many more could be averted if vaccination coverage improved?

2-3 million

an additional 1.5 million

30

What is the Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness?

an integrated approach to child health that focuses on the well-being of the whole child

includes both preventive and curative elements that are implemented by families and communities as well as by health facilities