Lecture 6 - Part 1 Flashcards Preview

511 > Lecture 6 - Part 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 6 - Part 1 Deck (27)
Loading flashcards...
1

How many neglected tropical diseases are there? Across how many countries?

20 diseases
across 150 countries

2

Which 3 neglected tropical diseases are transmitted in Canada?

1. Rabies
2. Scabies
3. Echinococcosis

3

Which 3 NTD were just added?

1. Mycetoma
2. Scabies
3. Snake bite envenoming

4

Why are they neglected?

1. Because they affect the poorest people and poorest countries (LMICs)

2. They are related to the poorest basic needs indicators

3. There is Inadequate data/statistics, funding, R&D, and investment in training in NTDs

5

How many people die of NTDs annually?

350,000 deaths annually

6

What percent of low income countries are dealing with more than 5 NTDs?

100%

7

What % of people with an NTD have 2 or more NTDs?

70%

8

What is the only disease to have been Eradicated? in what year?

Smallpox

Last case was 1977, declared eradicated by WHO in 1979

9

What NTDs are eradicable? (2)

– Dracunculiasis (by 2020?)
– Yaws (by 2020?)

10

What NTDs are eliminable? (3)

– Lymphatic filariasis
– Human African trypanosomiasis
– Trachoma

11

What are the reasons that Smallpox Eradication was Successful? (6)

1. No known animal reservoir
2. No long-term carriers of virus
3. Single attack provided lifelong immunity
4. Detection easy -- rash characteristic
5. Effective easily-administered heat-stable vaccine
6. Eradication was cost-effective

12

How is Dracunculiasis acquired?

Acquired by drinking water contaminated with infected copepods (Cyclops) (water fleas)

13

What treatment is there for Dracunculiasis

none

14

What are 2 measures to prevent Dracunculiasis?

1. drinking filtered water
2. avoiding putting infected feet in water

15

What progress has been made on prevention of Dracunculiasis since the 1980s?

21 cases (down from 3.5 million in 1980s)

of 21 original endemic countries, only 2 remaining endemic countries (Chad, South Sudan)

16

What is an unexpected obstacle to the elimination of Dracunculiasis

Cases in dogs, cats, fish

17

What is Yaws and how is it transmitted?

A bacterial infection that affects skin,joints, bones, and can lead to death in severe cases

It is transmitted via skin to skin contact

18

What are soil-transmitted helminth infections (STHs)?

STHs is a group of intestinal worms comprising:
– Roundworms: Ascaris lumbricoides
– Whipworms: Trichuris trichiura
– Hookworms: Anclyostoma duodenale
Necator americanus

19

How many people are affected by STHs?

Endemic in over 100 countries, affecting >1 billion people globally

20

What age is the peak prevalence of roundworm and whipworm?

School aged children (5-15)

21

What is the other name for roundworms?

Ascaris lumbricoides

22

What is the other name for whipworms?

Trichuris trichiura

23

What is the other name for hookworms?

Anclyostoma duodenale
Necator americanus

24

What % of children have had roundworms by the time they are 15?
whipworms? hookworms?

– Roundworms: 100%
– Whipworms: Almost 100%
– Hookworms: under 40%

-> not sure if accurate, going off profs example question but seems to contradict the graph

25

Which NTD accounts for the most DALYs?

Soil-transmitted helminthiasis

26

Why is it that even if all children are treated for Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in an endemic area, cases will start to creep up again?

Because the environment hasn't changed

27

Stopped on

slide 30