Flashcards in Lecture 6 - Part 1 Deck (27)
How many neglected tropical diseases are there? Across how many countries?
across 150 countries
Which 3 neglected tropical diseases are transmitted in Canada?
Which 3 NTD were just added?
3. Snake bite envenoming
Why are they neglected?
1. Because they affect the poorest people and poorest countries (LMICs)
2. They are related to the poorest basic needs indicators
3. There is Inadequate data/statistics, funding, R&D, and investment in training in NTDs
How many people die of NTDs annually?
350,000 deaths annually
What percent of low income countries are dealing with more than 5 NTDs?
What % of people with an NTD have 2 or more NTDs?
What is the only disease to have been Eradicated? in what year?
Last case was 1977, declared eradicated by WHO in 1979
What NTDs are eradicable? (2)
– Dracunculiasis (by 2020?)
– Yaws (by 2020?)
What NTDs are eliminable? (3)
– Lymphatic filariasis
– Human African trypanosomiasis
What are the reasons that Smallpox Eradication was Successful? (6)
1. No known animal reservoir
2. No long-term carriers of virus
3. Single attack provided lifelong immunity
4. Detection easy -- rash characteristic
5. Effective easily-administered heat-stable vaccine
6. Eradication was cost-effective
How is Dracunculiasis acquired?
Acquired by drinking water contaminated with infected copepods (Cyclops) (water fleas)
What treatment is there for Dracunculiasis
What are 2 measures to prevent Dracunculiasis?
1. drinking filtered water
2. avoiding putting infected feet in water
What progress has been made on prevention of Dracunculiasis since the 1980s?
21 cases (down from 3.5 million in 1980s)
of 21 original endemic countries, only 2 remaining endemic countries (Chad, South Sudan)
What is an unexpected obstacle to the elimination of Dracunculiasis
Cases in dogs, cats, fish
What is Yaws and how is it transmitted?
A bacterial infection that affects skin,joints, bones, and can lead to death in severe cases
It is transmitted via skin to skin contact
What are soil-transmitted helminth infections (STHs)?
STHs is a group of intestinal worms comprising:
– Roundworms: Ascaris lumbricoides
– Whipworms: Trichuris trichiura
– Hookworms: Anclyostoma duodenale
How many people are affected by STHs?
Endemic in over 100 countries, affecting >1 billion people globally
What age is the peak prevalence of roundworm and whipworm?
School aged children (5-15)
What is the other name for roundworms?
What is the other name for whipworms?
What is the other name for hookworms?
What % of children have had roundworms by the time they are 15?
– Roundworms: 100%
– Whipworms: Almost 100%
– Hookworms: under 40%
-> not sure if accurate, going off profs example question but seems to contradict the graph
Which NTD accounts for the most DALYs?
Why is it that even if all children are treated for Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in an endemic area, cases will start to creep up again?
Because the environment hasn't changed