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1

a system where individuals help to care for young that are not their own

cooperative breeding

2

Cooperative breeding is investment only if it comes at a -- to the helper

cost

3

any conspecific that acts as a parent to young who are not their own

alloparent

4

the care given by surrogate parents

allocare

5

examples of cooperative breeders

meerkats, naked mole rats, birds, wolves

6

about -- percent of primate provide allocare

20

7

cooperative breeding results in -- litter size

increased

8

Jackals increase their litters by -- extra pup for every helper they have

one

9

cooperative breeding help species expand into --

new habitats

10

Scrub jays can expand into habitats with -- when they have helpers to guard young

more predators

11

In most cooperative breeders, -- delay their own reproduction to stay around and help their parents to raise younger siblings

helpers

12

helpers gain -- from having more surviving siblings

inclusive fitness benefits

13

Foragers: help provision their children for up to --

18 years

14

T/F: Virtually impossible to rear children without some form of help

true

15

Since CB is not seen in other apes, it likely evolved after the --

split from most RCA

16

CB may have began 1.7 mya in --

Homo erectus

17

Most cooperative breeders rely heavily on -- to provide care and provisioning

kin

18

Inclusive fitness benefits to the caretaker -- the costs of providing care

offset

19

kin are more trustworthy and are more likely to be in -- assuming the species lives in family groups

close proximity

20

alloparents = young women + -- + grandmothers

siblings

21

Grandmothers are uniquely situated to be able to provide child-care support: -- degree of relatedness

high

22

Grandmothers are uniquely situated to be able to provide child-care support: -- skilled

highly

23

Grandmothers are uniquely situated to be able to provide child-care support: -- reproductive trade-offs

few

24

Menopause occurs at about the -- in chimps and humans

same age

25

It is -- rather than menopause itself that was selected for

post-reproductive lifespan

26

Why are grandmothers performing more active care than mothers? -- have to perform a range of tasks, active and passive

Mothers

27

A system where juveniles remain in association with their parents and help to raise their siblings, delaying their own reproduction

helpers at the nest

28

Hungary gypsies study: Population shows a -- ratio at
birth and more investment in daughters than sons

female-biased sex

29

If -- provide a valuable service in terms of child-care they may be favored by parents because they help to increase overall reproductive success for the parents

daughters

30

Probability of having another birth -- with daughters more than sons

increases