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1

Human Behavior Ecology examines how -- factors influence and shape behavioral flexibility within and between populations

ecological and social

2

-- is the result of complex interaction between biology and environment

behavior

3

HBE assumes behavior is quite --

flexible

4

behavior is -- dependent

context

5

the study of human adaptation to the social and physical environment

cultural ecology

6

evolution and adaptive design in ecological context

ethology/evolutionary ecology

7

-- are the theoretical underpinnings of HBE

cultural ecology and ethology

8

nature of human activity controlled by parameters of physical world

determinists

9

determinists view humans as -- agents

passive

10

the environment sets some constraints but cultural diversity is largely determined by man's actions

possibilists

11

possibilists view humans as -- agents

active

12

cultural ecology lacks a strong -- from which to derive hypotheses

theoretical basis

13

cultural ecology is mainly --

correlational

14

the study of ethology became prominent in the --

1950s

15

ethology, study of animal behavior focused on -- behavior

instinctual

16

shared the nobel prize in Physiology with von Frisch for their work on social behavior patterns in animals

Tinbergen and Lorenz

17

Tinbergen's Question: What are the mechanisms that -- behavior?

cause

18

Tinbergen's Question: How does the behavior -- in the individual?

develop (ontogeny)

19

Tinbergen's Question: How has the behavior -- How does the behavior compare to that found in related species?

evolve

20

Tinbergen's Question: What is the survival value of the behavior?

adaptive function

21

-- cause is what enables the organism to manifest the behavior

proximate

22

-- cause is how and why the behavior came to be

ultimate

23

Cultural ecology and Theory of Culture Change

Steward

24

Why does ecology affect behavior?

natural selection

25

proximate cause is the -- mechanism or stimulus that initiates or triggers a pattern of behavior

immediate

26

What causes birds to fly south for the winter? They sense and respond to environmental cues such as shortened day length

proximate cause

27

What causes birds to fly south for the winter? There is more food further south in the winter

ultimate cause

28

ultimate cause is the explanation that reveals the -- of a trait

adaptive value

29

What are the mechanisms that cause declines in fertility? -- cause

proximate

30

What (if any) is the adaptive function of a decline in average fertility? -- cause

ultimate