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1

study of the key events in an individual's life related to fertility and mortality

life history

2

the timing and schedule of life history events are shaped by --

natural selection

3

life history events are are influenced by -- and cultural norms

socio-ecological conditions

4

for any given individual, available resources in any particular environment are finite

principle of allocation

5

time, effort, and -- used for one purpose diminishes the time, effort, and -- available for another

energy

6

generally, natural selection should result in -- allocation patterns which then result in the life history of an organism

optimal

7

principle of allocation results in trade-offs between the goals of growth, maintenance, and --

reproduction

8

allocating energy to future reproduction has opportunity costs to --

fertility

9

current reproduction has cost to later reproduction due to --

lost growth/maintenance

10

beginning reproduction early has cost to --

personal growth

11

a later age at first birth means the mother may be in better condition, but her reproductive lifespan is then --

shorter

12

less stressor lead to -- age of first pregnancy

later

13

as an organism ages, he or she should start to shift energy toward current reproduction (greater risk of death means you should reproduce now and not wait)

terminal investment hypothesis

14

twinning rates -- with maternal age

increase

15

breastfeeding rates -- among older women

higher

16

discounted number of future children expected to be born to a woman of a certain age

reproductive value

17

reproductive value -- from maturity onward

decreases

18

if bigger risk are controllable (malnutrition) -->

quality strategy

19

if bigger risk are random (snake bites) -->

quantity strategy

20

where diseases are present, the best buffer is to have -- kids

more (quantity strategy)

21

r-selected: -- growth and early maturation

fast

22

r-selected: produce -- offspring

many

23

r-selected: -- parental investment per offspring

low

24

r-selected: -- lifespans

shorter

25

r-selected: suited to life in -- environments

unstable

26

r-selected: -- strategy

quantity

27

K-selected: mature -- and have longer growth period

slowly

28

K-selected: -- offspring

few

29

K-selected: -- investment per offspring

high

30

K-selected: -- mortality rates and longer lifespans

low