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1

parental investment is any investment by the in their offspring that increases the offspring's chance of surviving at the -- of the parent's ability to invest in other offspring

cost

2

T/F: the amount of obligatory parental investment often differs for males and females

true

3

in humans, females have greater obligatory parental investment: pregnancy and -- which is now longer no longer obligatory

lactation

4

Trivers: the sex with higher parental investment is -- about who they mate with

choosier

5

the sex you invests less will be more -- for access to the higher investing sex

competitive

6

the number of offspring an individual produces, who themselves are capable of producing offspring

reproductive success

7

reproductive success counts the # of children who survived to at least age --

5

8

reproductive success is best measure by the # of --

grandkids

9

females have -- variance in how many kids they have

less

10

males have -- variance in how many kids they have

more

11

female reproduction is limited by their -- not by the finding of a partner

biology

12

T/F: males are limited by the # of partners they find

true

13

differences in reproductive -- affect mating-parenting trade-offs

variance

14

-- benefit greatly from putting more effort into mating

males

15

What makes human parenting unique? it lasts a long time and is --

multi-faceted

16

time to adulthood is -- as long in humans as it is in chimps

twice

17

most of the difference between human and chimp lifespans is a lengthening of the -- in humans

juvenile period (post-weaning)

18

T/F: delaying reproduction allows more time for brain growth and time to learn

true

19

for females (and maybe males), parental investment begins --

before birth

20

ways to adjust the quantity-quality trade-off
1. total # of offspring
2. -- between births

space

21

carrying multiple children or -- is costly

stacking

22

short IBI --> -- child mortality --> fewer offspring

higher

23

Blurton Jones predicted that first IBI should be -- and won't negatively affect mortality

shorter

24

Blurton Jones predicted IBIs should -- with subsequent births and shorter IBIs should be associated with increased mortality

lengthened

25

Blurton Jones predicted IBIs will be shorter among -- women

cattle-herding

26

birth intervals should reflect -- circumstance

local

27

!Kung women carry -- loads and forage long distances

heavy

28

Hadza women have -- distances to travel and more foods that children can gather --> shorter IBIs and higher fertility

shorter

29

Harpending: Hadza fertility is higher because they suffer from less --

secondary sterility

30

Blurton Jones: should look at - - at last birth to describe IBIs

age