Lecture 6: Gonorrhea, Cholera, and the Flu Flashcards Preview

Micro Exam 4 > Lecture 6: Gonorrhea, Cholera, and the Flu > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 6: Gonorrhea, Cholera, and the Flu Deck (58):
1

why is typhi more effective at infecting humans?

pseudogenes (the ones that WOULD be used to infect other organisms) aren't taking up energy, so it is more efficient at infecting humans!

2

2 viruses that cause cancer but ONLY in immunocompromsied people

EVB
Kaposis sarcoma

3

what is the ONLY virus that causes cancer in healthy people?

HPV

4

rotovirus

intestinal sickness
mostly in small children
daycare center toys primary source of infection bc they put things in their mouths

5

Typhi or Tymermirium more effective in causing disease in humans/

typhi

6

typhi or tphymerium more common

typhimurium... being clean pretty much makes typhi a non issue

7

are the typhi genes lost?

no, just mutated

8

phenotype of syphillus

chancre... a weeping sore
so its rare, people can see it and feel it so they avoid spreading it

9

phenotype of chlamydia and gonorrhea

often no presentation... so its way more common
there may be pain or discharge in LATE stages... so its likely you spread it before you show symptoms

10

evolution of gonorrhea and chlamydia as opposed to things like norovirus

STIs: less presentation of disease leads to more ability to spread
Norovirus and stuff: you shed it in diarrhea and stuff... so you NEED the presentation for the spread

11

Boswell's urethritis

he got gonorrhea like 24 times in his life

12

how gonorrhea differs from other diseases

most diseases (including cold, smallpox ) You get the strain ONCE, then you are immune and don't get it again
gonorrhea: you get it over and over and over

13

treatment of gonorrhea

antibiotics
it goes away in like a day

14

why can you get gonorrhea multiple times

huge antigenic variation... immune can't respond to a different thing
it even changes during the time you have it

15

important thing for gonorrhea

type 4 pili (retractile)

16

gonorrhea: Turner study in Baltimore

baltimore had highest gonorrhea rate in country
5-18% of the people in Baltimire had infection WITH NO SYMPTOMS ... only 2 in 5,000 had disease (symptoms)
it is effective because it rarely causes disease

17

what caused most loss of manpower in WWI??

gonorrhea!

18

gonorrhea vaccine?

we don't have one!

19

what does gonorrhea infect?

mucousal membranes
genital tract
rectum
throat
eyes

20

other outcomes of gonorrhea if untreated

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
gonococcal arthritis

21

PID

can occur if gonorrhea untreated
major cause of sterility in women
scar tissue forms in uterus and fallopian tubes

22

Gonococcal arthritis

gonorrhea gets into other tissues
bacteria grows in space between 2 joints

23

how do you diagnose gonorrhea??

neutrophils (which make the pus)
diplococci

24

graph on slide 7...what does it mean?

women could be more sexually active earlier with older partners

younger men may have multiple partners

gonorrhea less of a problems as people age and become more monogamous

25

disseminated gonococcal infection

when gonorrhea disseminates to other tissues
PID and gonococcal artritis

26

trends in gonorrhea over time

1941ish: WWII...women more independent, less monogomy
1950s: back to monogomy
60s-70s: free-love, baby boomers go to college, pill, people have more partners
80s: HIV/AIDS, people start having safer sex

27

gonorrhea men vs. women

men don't have a lot of outcomes other than pain and discharge
women: PID, tubo-ovarian abscess, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain
infertility and (rarely) death :(

28

gonorrhea rates by state..education?

may not change much :/
DC has highest rate of gonorrhea infection in nation

29

Women and gonorrhea presentation

40% symptomatic
60% asymptomatic

BOTH can lead to further disease (but in US, symptoms usually lead to treatment)

30

More on PID

may think that nothing is wrong, pain in uterus may be "normal"
septicemia can lead to shock and death (rarely)

31

gonorrhea basic infection of cell (really basic)

pili pull on surface of host cell, think no infection
bacteria invade cell
bacteria come out with different surface antigens

32

gonorrhea pili

pull on cell surface, grab surface receptors and activate them to convince no infection

convince epithelial cells to endocytose the bacteria (which isn't normal)

33

what on surface of gonorrhea cell is antigenically variable?

pili!

34

what is success of gonorrhea based on?

GROUP (not individual bacteria) success
need enough force on outside of cell to get one bacteria in
great variety of antigens to confuse immune system
large infectious dose

35

gonorrhea: type 4 pili

ADHESION is primary function
send out a bundle of long, stringy pili, then pull in closer (retracting of pili)
grab specific receptors on host cell
cause receptors to signal to the cell to engulf the bacteria

36

what have we tried with gonorrhea vaccines?

tried to target pili
ths hasn't worked because they change a TON

37

PilE

core: a helix in the middle, can't be targeted
tried to target the parts hagning out, but it didn't work

38

why gonorrhea vaccines targeted at pili dont work

antigenic variation

39

gonorrhea pili antigenic variation

change the part of the pili hanging out
silent pilins: non-expressed genes with open reading frames very similar to pili
every so often when bacteria divides, RECOMBINATION of silent pilin and active pilE

so pilE is constantly changing, we can't target
theres like a million ways to express pilE

40

can you get infected with gonorrhea from the same host?

yes, because it is constantly changing

41

study... people infected with gonorrhea and pili studied

after just a week, a huge amount of diversity among the pili types
and it takes almost a week and a half for symtoms to even show....but they were shedding bacteria the whole times
about every day, there were new variants expressed

42

so why is gonorrhea so successful?

you are transmitting a ton of variants even before you know you are infected

43

vaccine types

attenuated
heat killed
outer membrane preparations
purified proteins
LPS target
DNA vaccines

44

Adjuvant

a chemical you inject WITH the vaccine to get the immune response you need to the vaccine

basically the innate activation which allows the adaptive response to happen

45

attenuated vaccine

whole organism missing JUST genes that allow it to establish infection

lab adapted are grown in absence of immune system
or use naturall like the cowpox...one that can't survive in humans

oldest and most effective...also most dangerous for immunocompromised people

46

heat killed vaccine

still contains all molecular proteins
but heat causes denaturation of proteins (but primary sequence maintained)

47

outer membrane preparations

strip antigens off microbe, inject just the antigens and surface proteins into the person
"purified proteins"

48

purified proteins

single protein infected, you get immunity to that protein

49

LPS target

targets LPS, pretty effective

50

DNA vaccines

inject with DNA, get a response to the proteins encoded in the DNA
good for viruses

51

why do we vaccinate

selfish reasons... you dont want to get sick
MORE IMPORTANTLY: to protect those who can't get vaccinated and the very old and very young

52

why we vaccinate flu example

get college kids vaccinated... we get and spread the flu most
but if we vaccinate, we protect the old people we visit

... their immune systems can't handle flu and they can die

53

flu vaccine types

injection
spray

54

flu injected vaccine

Targets: "whole" heat killed virus
pros: safe for all ages
Cons: egg allergies, storage media allergies and rxns
type of immune response: CD4 T cells and neutralizing antibodies

55

flu nasal spray vaccine

targets: live, attenuated virions
pros: more effective immune response in correct location
Cons: can make ppl with weak immune system sick
type of immune response: CD4 and CD8 T cells and neutralizing antibodies

56

How to make Flu Vaccine

1) in the lab make a new strain by combining the most common strains and attenuated version in eggs... random recombination of virions will occur
2) grow hybrid strain in cheicken eggs
3) test hybrid vaccine for surface proteins of new strains
4) test effectiveness
5) more production
6) package and send to the world

57

Flu

multiple different RNA segments make up its genume
grows in people and birds, so we can grow it in eggs
if one cell is infected with 2 variants of virus, random recombination will occur

58

Flu: H and N

spike proteins on surface that we have immune responses to
how we classify flu strains