Lecture 3: Microbes and Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 3: Microbes and Disease Deck (58):
1

test of malignancy in the 1950s

take cells out of body, and they continue to live

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test of malignancy in the 1950s

take cells out of body, and they continue to live

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dengue fever

athropod (mosquitos)
having an immune response is pretty bad... the virus infects B or T cells
so its hard to figure out a vaccine
Florida

4

Norovirus

aersolized
easily infects people in close quarters

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Smallpox

dsDNA, enveloped... very stable virus
first virus to be erradiacted
we don't even vaccinate against it anymore
pretty large genome

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why don't we vaccinate against smallpox?

1 in a million people die from the vaccine
why risk dying for a disease we dont have anymore?

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Whats special about smallpox

its as close to living as a virus gets
just doesn't have ATP or ribosomes... otherwise like its living

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smallpox stability

doesn't mutate much bc dsDNA... most stable form

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what does smallpox have

it brings a ton of proteins with it
so it can do all catabolism and metabolism by itself... just needs host ribosomes and ATP
has own polymerases (DNA and RNA)

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ease of vaccinating against smallpox

target the different
easy to target it's protiens

vaccine is cheap to make

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smallpox lifecycle

enter cell
uncoating
transcription (viral RNA polymerase)
DNA replication (viral DNA polymerase--only group with this)
viral packaging
cell lysis (causes pox)

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hosts of smallpox

no Non-human hosts
so once you erradicate it, its gone

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how vaccine was discovered

milkmaids never got smallpox, just cowpox on their hands

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the word vaccine

from Vaccina virus: cowpox virus...80% identical to smallpox virus

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How smallpox was erradicated

mointoring the disease
when someone gets sick, vaccinate everyine within a 10 mile radius

Larry Brillant

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RNA viruses

very UNSTABLE... high rate of mutations
because it lacks PROOFREADING ability... because of its two enzymes

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the reason we have a core genome of DNA?

its more stable than RNA
also, DNA has proofreading abilities

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RNA enzymes

RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RNA to RNA)
Reverse Transcriptase (RNA to DNA to RNA)
NEITHER CAN PROOFREAD

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HIV

retrovirus
reverse transcriptase
(+) ssRNA, enveloped
infects many cell types

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reverse transcriptase

insert viral genome into host DNA

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HIV

retrovirus
reverse transcriptase
(+) ssRNA, enveloped
infects many cell types
no vaccine

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reverse transcriptase

insert viral genome into host DNA

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HIV and CD4 T cells

helper T cells regulate immune system

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AIDS and CD4 T cells

you're sick all the time beacuse your CD4T cells cant fight anything off
even food can make you sick (Tfolic? or Treg?)

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AIDS

depletion of immune cells
the disease (HIV is the infection)

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AIDS and Kaposi Sarcoma Virus (herpesvirus)

Kaposi Sarcoma Virus is carried by 40% of people, its often transmitted, but RARELY CAUSES DISEASE
but if you have AIDS, it causes cancer

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review graph on slide 12

12

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ways HIV is transmitted

sex
blood transfusion
birth
needles
blood to blood contact basically

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HIV Replication

-enveloped virus fuses with and enters cell
-makes dsDNA in cytosol, then gets into nucleus (Reverse transcription of RNA to DNA)
-integrates into host genome
- viral RNA replicated
- translation to pro-protein
-viral protease cleavage
- viral reconstruction and egress

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How does HIV work

converts cell into HIV factory bc goes to nucleus
all virions are a little different

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different HIV virions... what does this mean for immune system

immune system looks for molecular patterns... but changes mean there are differnt patterns that may not be recognized

if you do figure out a good immune response, the virus will mutate around it

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How does HIV work

converts cell into HIV factory bc goes to nucleus
all virions are a little different
virus shed like crazy
send a bunch of stuff out... lots of it different (high mutation rate)

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different HIV virions... what does this mean for immune system

immune system looks for molecular patterns... but changes mean there are differnt patterns that may not be recognized

if you do figure out a good immune response, the virus will mutate around it

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How we treat HIV

HAART drugs
3 different drugs that target 3 different parts of the virus simultaneously
you have to take the virus consistently, or the virus can become resistant or get a chance to mutate

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where is HIV?

in EVERY nation-worldwide
its a Pandemic
we expect 0 HIV

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review slide 15

15

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point of graph on 15?

number of new infected decreasing
number of deaths decreasing
number living with HIV decreasing
THIS MEANS PEOPLE AREN'T DYING AS MUCH FROM HIV

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Magic johonson effect

at first safe sex
when he didnt die, people think HIV is not a death sentence, unprotected sex and STIs increase

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Magic johonson effect

at first safe sex
when he didnt die, people think HIV is not a death sentence, unprotected sex and STIs increase

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Patient Zero

a flight attendant who slept with 2500 people in North American even though he knew he had HIV

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where did HIV come from

jump from human to chimps around 1900--railroad to heart of congo
it had probably jumped before, but now it could get out into the world

butchering chimps..lots of blood
arose in chimps half a million years ago... 2 viruses recombined to make HIV

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US and spread of HIV

US spread it to a TON of other countries

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US and spread of HIV

US spread it to a TON of other countries

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infection

thing gets into body
HIV
NOT the disease, NOT the ability to cause disease

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Disease

immune response
set of symptoms
age could be considered a disease
AIDS

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Pathogenesis

study of how pathogens cause disease
measurement of disease causing potential

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eitological agent

cause of disease

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pathogenesis

bacterium, virus, other organism causing disease

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Germ theory of disease

all diseases have microbial origin
this isnt entirely correct

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when does infection cause disease

when immune system responds or the infection causes damgae

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virulence

measure of disease causing potential
more virulent=more disease in more people

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Virulence factors

genes that increase virulence of organism

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ID 50

infectious dose 50%: amount needed to transmit the disease among 50% of people exposed

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LD 50

Lethal Dose 50%: amount needed to kill 50% of people

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LD 50

Lethal Dose 50%: amount needed to kill 50% of people

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is homosexuality a cause of HIV

NO
its literally just blood to blood contact

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is homosexuality a cause of HIV

NO
its literally just blood to blood contact

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we've been talking about HIV-1, theres also HIV-2

HIV-2 in Africa
from Mangabes monkeys