Lecture 7: Final Lecture Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 7: Final Lecture Deck (36):
1

chickungyna

joint pain
mosquito bites

2

advantage of heat killed organisms

safer

3

advantages of attenuated organisms

better immune response
youre place the vaccine in airways..where flu is, not arm where flu usually isnt...

CD8+ T (cytotoxic) cells in addition to JUST CD4+ T cells= better immune response

4

why can flu vaccine be dangerous

egg allergies
egg proteins get incorporated into the virus/virions... you can die from the vaccine

5

How can smallpox be eradicated but we still have no vaccine for HIV?

small pox has a stable DNA structure which is easy to target...
HIV has a RT RNA genome, which mutates a ton...antigenic VARIATION

both lack non-human hosts, so you would assume HIV would be easy to erradicate

6

why do we get a new flu vaccine every year

flu has a really high rate of mutation
how we decide on vaccine: collect flu strains from other hemispheres in summer, find most common one. not always effective bc more mutation can happen over 6 month period

7

why are there no vaccines for hookworm or tapeworm? Should there be?

1) because the people who have the money to do research arent effected by hookworm

yeah there probably should be

8

Should we vaccinate against everything?

NO that would kill our normal flora, only get rid of serious pathogens

it would be bad to vaccinate against the common cold

9

hygine hypothesis

better sewage leads to more allergies and immune disorders

amish had less allergies than meninites (who vacuumed)

10

Epi

study of disease on grand scale...scale of populations
figure out how to fight and prevent disease on this scale

11

3 things that contribute to disease spread

contact
shedding phase
susceptible host

intersection of these is when disease is spread

12

contact

how infectious agent gets from one host to another

13

shedding phase

when someone is producing the organism in a form that can infect others

14

susceptible host

can the agent infect a new host? Is the new host immunized? do they have the right receptors

15

a good way to stop disease spread

VACCINATE: pre-protect them so they arent susceptible
that protects the rest of the population too bc there are less sucesptible hosts in the chain of contact.

16

endemic

expected level...if we get above this we get an epidemic

17

epidemic

level above expected

18

pandemic

epidmic in multiple nation states

19

tamiflu

intervention causes people to shed less virions...disrupt chain of spread
H1N1 in 2010... started to be resistnat to tamiflu toward the end... which could cause a future problem

20

what info does CDC collect on flu

people DYING from it, not infected with virus (most people arent testing for the virus)

21

look at graph on 6

look at graph on 6

22

Look at graph on 7

Look at graph on 7

23

flu outbreak in 2007

strain not very serious, the people who were dying were old and sick

24

treatment for cholera

people die from dehydration
treat by oral rehydration

25

Texas Measles in the 1970s

cases of measles were sky rocketing...epidemic spike in feb-march
started vaccinating EVERYONE, not just 7 year olds in the end of March
really dropped off within a week

using vaccines to stop an epidemic

26

Surveillance and HIV

in 1992, a new cheap blood test for HIV came out
so the next year there was a HUGE spike (not because there was more HIV, people just got diagnosed more bc the tech was there)

then a drop because people were self aware and changed behavior

27

HIV blood test

increased self knowledge esp in asymptomatic people
people tell their partners and change behaviors

education was also expanding during this period

28

graph on page 8

graph on page 8

29

why are hospitals no where you want to be when you are sick?

microbes are under pressure to become antibiotic resistant

30

common nosocomial infections

UTIs
Surgery site infections
Respiratory infections
C. diff

31

engineering solutions ex

doctors wear bow ties instead of long ties to stop spread of flu

32

C diff in hospitals

spores grow when antibiotics kill off antibiotics normal flora

to stop spread: wash hands and clean things with bleach
PROBLEM: doctors were told to use purell with alcohol to stop spread of flu... alcohol makes it easier for C. diff to live because it kills off other bacteria but not C. diff.

33

Early identification of AIDS outbreak

men were dying of disease that don't usually kill
looked at food, street drugs, finally sex
mapped connections between them
numbers: Order of disease in that area

patient zero was NOT sick and was hypothetical at this point

34

graph on page 11

11

35

source of disease

NOT patient zero, they are the per-source

36

use 19 and 20 to study!!!

use 19 and 20 to study!!!