Lecture I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture I Deck (63):
1

What is the order of the muscles around the eyes, going from the closest to the opening, outward?

-Pre-tarsal
-Pre-septal
-Orbicularis oculi

2

What is the muscle that raises the eyelid?

Levator palpebrae superioris

3

What is the nerve that innervates the orbicularis oculi and pretarsal / preseptal muscles?

CN 7

4

What is the innervation of the levator superioris muscle?

CN III

5

Which part of the ANS keeps the eye open? Through which CN does this occur?

SNS through CN 7

6

What is the septum that divides the deep part of the superior eye, from the superficial part?

Orbital septum

7

What is Mueller's muscle? What is its main role?

Superior tarsal muscle that keeps the eye open

8

Entrapment of the orbicularis oculi 2/2 trauma usually occurs where?

In the maxillary sinus

9

What are the zonules of the eye?

Suspensory ligaments of the eye that attached the ciliary body to the lens

10

What is the effect of contraction of the ciliary muscle of the eye?

Lower tension on the lens = accommodation***

11

What is the choroid part of the eye?

Vascular part of the eye

12

What are the upper and lower punctum of the eye?

Upper and lower opening on the medial side of the eye that drain tears into the nose

13

What is the caruncle of the eye?

The red bit next to the nose

14

What do the upper and lower punctum drain into? What structures?

Upper and lower canaliculus into the lacrimal sac

15

What is the limbus of the eye?

The outer part of the iris

16

Where is the lacrimal gland relative to the eye?

Superior laterally

17

What are the layers of the eye from superficial to deep? (5)

Epithelial layer
Bowman's layer
Stroma
Descemet's membrane
Endothelium

18

What determines damage to the cornea results in scarring or total regeneration?

If break through Bowman's layer, then will not

19

What keeps the fluid from passing into the cornea from the aqueous humor?

Na/K pump on the endothelial layer

20

What are the components of the uveal tract? (3)

Iris
Ciliary body
Choroid

21

What causes presbyopia?

Slow increased thickening of the cornea, that eventually causes a change in the shape of the cornea, and clouding

22

True or false: cataracts are a part of normal development of the eye

True

23

What part of the eye secretes the aqueous humor? What are the receptors that are located here?

Ciliary body
Alpha 2, beta 1, beta 2

24

What are the receptors located on the ciliary muscle?

M3 and beta 2

25

What is the autonomic receptor located on the radial (dilator) muscle of the eye?

Alpha 1

26

What is the autonomic receptor located on the sphincter (constrictor) muscle of the eye?

M3

27

The choroid supplies what part of the eye?

Outer 2/3 of the retina

28

What supplies the inner 1/3 of the retina?

Opthalmic artery

29

How does fluid drain from the eye?

Through the anterior chamber, into the trabecular network, and through the canal of schlemm

30

What, generally, is open-angled glaucoma?

Blockage of the canal of schlemm causes increased IOP

31

Why is there cupping of the optic disc with glaucoma?

Increased pressure in the anterior chamber is transmitted through the vitreous humor to the optic disc

32

What is the important ratio that is used to determine the severity of glaucoma?

Cup:Disc ratio

33

What is the pattern of vision loss in the eye?

Upper outer quadrant-- upper temporal part

34

What is scotoma?

Reduced or absent vision

35

What is hemianopia?

Loss of half of a visual field

36

What is homonymous?

Either right or left visual field

37

What do the right and left optic radiations receive information from respectively?

Left radiation is from right eye to left brain

Right radiation is from left eye, right brain

38

A lesion to the optic nerve prior to the chiasm will result in what sort of blindness?

Total in one eye

39

A lesion to the optic nerve in the middle of the chiasm will result in what sort of blindness?

Bitemporal hemianopsia

40

A lesion to an optic radiation will result in what sort of visual disturbance?

Homonymous hemianopia

41

True or false: the optic nerve is a direct extension of the brain

True

42

What are the macula and the fovea?

Macula is the area of sharp, central vision, with the fovea within it as the area that has the highest density of color

43

Why aren't there vessels going into the macula?

Otherwise would have vessels covering vision

44

True or false: the relative pigmentation of the skin is reflected in the retina

True

45

What is the role of Rhodopsin?

a biological pigment found in the rods of the retina and is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Rhodopsin is extremely sensitive to light, and thus enables vision in low-light conditions. When rhodopsin is exposed to light, it immediately photobleaches. In humans, it is regenerated fully in about 45 minutes

46

true or false: Only a small fraction of metabolism in the lens is directed toward maintaining the transparency of the lens

False-- metabolism is directed entirely toward it

47

Where in the lens does the majority of metabolism take place?

Epithelium

48

Glucose enters the lens from where?

Aqueous humor

49

What percent of glucose metabolism is in the lens? What happens in hyperglycemic states?

5%

Shunted to this using aldose reductase

50

What is the consequence of sorbitol in the lens?

lens does not have the enzyme that is needed to break down sorbitol, so it builds up. Since it is osmotically active, the lens swells

51

What is sorbitol converted to once in the lens? How fast is this?

Fructose
Slow

52

Patient with new onset blurred vision should be suspected of having what?

DM

53

What happens if there is chronic swelling in the lens d/t DM?

Leads to cell rupture, causing a release of amino acids, K+ etc, which leads to cataract development

54

What are the two main refractive surfaces of the eye? What portion of refractive power comes from each of these?

Cornea (2/3)
Lens (1/3)

55

What is astigmatism?

Refractive power of the cornea/lens is different in one meridian that another

56

What is accomodation?

The ability of the ciliary muscle to contract or relax that zonules, allowing the lens to focus near

57

What are the zonules of the eye?

a ring of fibrous strands connecting the ciliary body with the crystalline lens of the eye. These fibers are sometimes collectively referred to as the suspensory ligaments of the lens.

58

What is myopia? Hyperopia?

Myopia = nearsightedness (what you are)

Hyperopia = farsightedness

59

What happens to axial length with myopia and hyperopia?

Myopia = axial length too short
Hyperopia = axial length too long

60

When does presbyopia usually present?

early 40s

61

Can you halt the progression of presbyopia?

No

62

What is the technical definition of legal blindness?

20/200

63

What, generally, is LASIK?

Laser in situ keratomileusis--flap of cornea cut and lens part fixed with laser