Lecture XII Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture XII Deck (53):
1

What happens to the eyes in pregnancy? (3)

-Refractive error changes
-Dry eyes
-Transient loss of accommodation

2

What is a retinal complication from pregnancy?

Pregnancy induced HTN leads to retinopathy

3

What can happen with DM retinopathy with pregnancy?

Progresses

4

Should you change the glasses prescription or contact lens prescription in pregnancy?

No--will change too fast

5

What causes the exophthalmos with Grave's disease?

EOM hypertrophy 2/2 Ab stimulating

6

What are the histological findings of the thyroid with grave's disease?

Scalloping of the colloid

7

What is the most common cause of unilateral or bilateral exophthalmos in the adult?

Grave's disease

8

How well does the severity of exophthalmos with serum thyroid levels in grave's disease?

Not very

9

True or false: Thyroid ophthalmopathy can progress even after thyroid function is normal

True

10

What may happen to the optic nerve with Grave's disease?

Pressure on the nerve

11

What are the three major non-surgical treatments for thyroid ophthalmopathy?

-Tear substitutes
-Corticosteroids
-Orbital irradiation

12

What is the major symptoms of iritis? Others?

-*Photophobia*
-Decreased vision
-Miotic pupil
-Pain

13

What must be r/o with iritis?

Trauma

14

What are the three major clinical exam findings of iritis?

-White cells in the anterior chamber
-Hypopyon
-Keratic precipitates

15

What are the ophthalmologic complications of Sarcoidosis? (4)

-Anterior uveitis (iritis)
-Posterior uveitis
-Retinitis
-Dry eye syndrome

16

What is the great mimic of Sarcoidosis?

Histoplasmosis

17

What are the exam findings of sarcoidosis in the eye? (cornea, retina)

-Granulomatous uveitis ("mutton fat")
-Candlewax drippings in the choriditis

18

What are the ocular complications from RA?

-*Dry eyes*
-Episcleritis
-Scleritis
-Corneal ulcers

19

Perforations of the ciliary body = ?

RA

20

What is the major complication from RA corneal ulcerations?

Perforation of the cornea

21

What is the major ocular findings from JRA? What is characteristic about the joint issues with JRA?

Iritis that is often asymptomatic and chronic

Usually pauciarticular

22

What may happen if iritis in JRA goes unrecognized? (3)

-Cataracts
-Glaucoma
-Corneal calcification

23

What are the ocular manifestations of SLE?

-Dry eyes
-Scleritis
-Peripheral corneal ulcers
-Retinopathy and optic neuropathy

24

What are the s/sx of CT diseases in the eyes?

-Dry eyes
-Burning
-FB sensation
-Photophobia
-Tears

25

What medications can cause dry eyes?

-antidepressants
-Diuretics

26

What syndrome may cause tear deficiency?

Steven-Johnson syndrome

27

What is the treatment for ocular surface disease? (3)

-Artificial tears OTC
-Omega 3
-Lid hygiene

28

What are the s/sx of ischemic optic neuropathy?

-HA
-Scalp TTP
-Jaw claudication

29

What is the systemic symptoms of giant cell arteritis?

Polymyalgia rheumatica

30

What is the treatment for giant cell arteritis?

-IV steroids
-Bx of the temporal artery

31

What is the timeframe in which the bx for giant cell arteritis will not be affected by the steroids given for treatment?

1 week

32

What are the three classic lab elevations with Giant cell arteritis?

-Platelets
-ESR
-CRP

33

What are the ocular s/sx of migraines? (3)

-Scintillating scotomas
-Transient cortical blindness
-Homonymous hemianopia

34

What medications should chronic migraine sufferers avoid?

Oral BCP

35

What is the long term treatment for migraines?

-Examine for visual loss

36

What is amaurosis fugax?

-Temporary arterial obstruction, causing sudden and transient visual loss

37

What are the organ system that affects amaurosis fugax?

-CVD
-Cerebrovascular
-Ophthalmologic

38

What can mimic occlusion with amaurosis fugax?

Migraine vasospasm

39

What is the treatment for CRAO? (2)

-Digital massage
-Glaucoma meds

40

What are the fundus characteristics after CRAO?

blind eye with a pale disc

41

What are the two classic malignancies that affect the optic nerve?

Leukemia
Lymphoma

42

True or false: most of the malignancies involving the eye are secondary

True

43

What are the complications of radiation to the eye?

Cataracts
Retinopathy

44

What chemotherapeutic agent can cause superficial keratitis?

Cytosine arabinoside

45

What chemotherapeutic agent can cause optic neuropathy?

Vincristine

46

What chemotherapeutic can cause CRAO?

Carmustine

47

True or false: pregnancy can cause serous retinal detachment

True

48

What is the role of corticosteroids in the treatment of exophthalmos 2/2 Grave's disease?

Reduces the antibody production. However, this is only a temporizing measure.

49

What type of injection characterizes iritis?

-Circumcorneal injection

50

What is the treatment for iritis?

Cycloplegic agents (antimuscarinics to cause dilation of the pupil)

51

What type of pupil do patients with iritis have: miotic or mydriatic?

Miotic

52

What causes the "snowglobe" appearance of irits?

Keratic precipitates

53

Which disease is characterized by the following:
-Granulomatous uveitis ("mutton fat")
-Candlewax drippings in the choroiditis

Sarcoidosis