Lecture II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture II Deck (52):
1

True or false: IBD can affect the eye

True

2

What is retinitis pigmentosum?

Genetic (or acquired) disease of the rods of the eye that causes them to degenerate slowly over time, with peripheral vision usually being lost first

3

What are the three major ROS facts that should be obtained with the eye?"

-Disturbances of vision
-Pain or discomfort of the eye
-Abnormal eye secretions

4

What is amaurosis?

partial or total blindness without visible change in the eye, typically due to disease of the optic nerve, spinal cord, or brain.

5

What is Amaurosis Fugax?

a temporary loss of vision in one eye caused by ischemia to the retina. It may also be caused by embolization from atherosclerotic plaques in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery.

6

Floaters and photopsia = ?

Retinal detatchment

7

What is photopsia?

Flashes of light

8

What is diplopia?

Double vision

9

What is epiphora?

Overflow tearing

10

What etiologies do the following secretions usually indicated with the eye:
-Purulent
-Mucous
-Serous

Purulent = bacterial
Mucous = allergic
Serous = viral

11

What is iritis?

(anterior uveitis) Inflammation of the anterior chamber and the iris

12

You should always check the visual acuity of patients except for one instance. What is it?

Chemical burns--irrigate the eye immediately

13

What is the best way to check for visual acuity-- the (best/worst) (Corrected/uncorrected) (monocular/binocular)

Best corrected monocular vision

14

What is the order of vision checks you should do if a patient cannot read the top letter/number on an eye chart?

Visual fields
Hand motion
Light perception

15

What is cortical blindness?

brain is affected so there is no processing of visual information, but reflexes are intact

16

What is a scotoma?

Blind spot

17

What is a hemianopia?

Loss of 1/2 VF

18

What is homonymous?

Either right or left VF

19

What are scintillating scotomas?

Jagged lines that appear often with migraine HAs are are not usually accompanied by visual loss

20

What are the eyebrow findings with hypothyroidism?

Thinning

21

What does the swinging flashlight test assess for?

Afferent reflex

22

What are the characteristics that should be obtained when inspecting the eye, instead of using PERRLA?

Size
Equal
Round
Central
Reactive

23

What is anisocoria?

Difference in the size of pupils

24

How do you perform the swinging light test? What does this assess for?

Swing light between eyes in a dark room--tests for afferent response of each pupil

25

What happens to the pupils when changing from far to near vision?

Constriction

26

When is checking EOMs particularly important?

If there is a complaint of diplopia

27

From superior to inferior, which muscle is being assessed at each of the three cardinal direction of gaze on the temporal side?

SR
LR
IR

28

From superior to inferior, which muscle is being assessed at each of the three cardinal direction of gaze on the Nasal side?

IO
MR
SO

29

Damage to CN III results in what ophthalmologic defects?

Eye looks down and out; ptosis, pupillary dilation, and loss of accommodation

30

Damage to CN IV results in what defects?

Eye moves upward, particularly with contralateral gaze and head tilt toward the side of the lesion

31

Damage to CN VI results in what defects?

Medially directed eye that cannot abduct

32

What is the CN that innervated the sensation to the eye?

CN V

33

What is arcus corneae?

a white, grey, or blue opaque ring in the corneal margin (peripheral corneal opacity), or white ring in front of the periphery of the iris

May be a sign of hypercholesterolemia

34

What are the two major, general causes of lens subluxation?

trauma
Systemic

35

What is the classic CT disorder that leads to lens subluxation?

Marfan's syndrome

36

How do you communicate lesions in the retina? (location, size)

Clock position relative to the optic disc

Size relative to the disc diameter

37

What causes AV nicking?

Increased pressure in the arteries compresses the veins

38

What are scleral crescents?

lighter area in the optic disc--normal variant

39

What are pigmented crescents?

Pigmentation around the optic disc--normal variant

40

What is papilledema?

Optic disc swelling (usually bilateral) d/t increased ICP

Causes an enlarged blind spot and elevated optic disc with blurred margins on fundoscopic exam

41

True or false: disc edema = papilledema

false--papilledema is 2/2 increased ICP

42

How do preretinal hemorrhages appear on fundoscopic exam?

Like an air-fluid level on CT (kinda)

43

How, roughly, do you distinguish between cotton wool spots and hard exudates?

Cotton wool spots are softer than hard exudates

44

What is the normal eye pressure?

10-21 mmHg

45

What is the gold standard test for eye pressures?

Goldmann

46

When should patients with better than 20/20 vision be referred?

If there are visual complaints

47

When should pts wit worse than 20/20 vision be referred?

Always, even in the absence of complaints

48

When should pts with VA asymmetry be referred?

Difference of 2 lines or more

49

True or false: for the most part, any fundus exam abnormality necessitates a referral to an ophthalmologist

True

50

Eye pressure of greater than what indicates the need for referral?

More than 22 mmHg

51

What are the components of AIDET?

-Acknowledge pt with a smile
-introduce yourself
-Describe what you are going to do
-Explain
-thank you

52

One eye bigger than the other in a kid = ?

glaucoma until proven otherwise