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Flashcards in Lecture X Deck (43):
1

What is the difference between papillitis and glaucoma?

Glaucoma will have decreased VF slowly, with an atrophic optic nerve


Papillitis will have a sudden loss of vision and RAPD

2

What are the fundoscopic findings congenital anomalies that appear as pseudopapilledema?

Blurred disc margins, but without edema or hemorrhages

3

What are the causes of pseudopapilledema?

-Hyperopia
-Persistent hyaloid remnants (in utero vessel between the retina and the iris)

4

Do hyperopic or myopic patients have pseudopapilledema?

Hyperoptic

5

How does a persistent hyaloid artery appear on a fundoscopic exam?

White outpouching of the disc

6

How do drusen cause pseudopapilledema?

If close to the optic disc, can blur margins

7

True or false: papilledema is always bilateral

True

8

What are the fundoscopic exam findings of papilledema?

-Hyperemia of the disc
-Tortuosity of the vessels

9

What are spontaneous venous pulsations, and what happens to the with papilledema?

Venous pulsations--if present, then pressure in the eye is normal.

If not present, may be normal, or could be indicative of papilledema

10

What is pseudotumor cerebri? Who usually gets this?

Idiopathic intracranial HTN

Usually in young, overweight women

11

What is the issue with the grading system of ocular findings in the eye?

High stage usually says papilledema, but this is actually just phlebitis--not true increased ICP

12

What are the s/sx of pseudotumor cerebri?

-Cephalalgia
-Visual obscurations
-Pulsatile tinnitus
-Horizontal diplopia
-Pain on EOM

13

What are the etiologies of pseudotumor cerebri?

-Steroids
-Excessive vitamin A/retinoic acid
-Li

14

What is the treatment for pseudotumor cerebri? (4)

-Weight loss
-CAI
-CSF shunting
-Optic nerve fenestration

15

What is the diuretic that can be used to treat pseudotumor cerebri?

CAI

16

In which gender is optic neuritis more common in? Age?

15-45 yo Females

17

What are the s/sx of optic neuritis? (4)

-Decreased vision
-Color desaturation
-VF defects
-RAPD

18

What are the etiologies of optic neuritis? (3)

-MS
-Ischemia
-Lyme disease

19

What is the prognosis of optic neuritis?

Good after 1st attack, especially if young

20

What is the treatment for optic neuritis?

IV steroids

21

Is optic neuritis generally unilateral, or bilateral?

unilateral

22

What are the s/sx of retrobulbar neuritis?

-RAPD
-Pain on EOM

23

Is there disc edema with retrobulbar neuritis?

No

24

What are the S/sx of papillitis?

RAPD
Poor vision

25

Is papillitis usually unilateral or bilateral?

Unilateral

26

What are the fundoscopic findings of optic neuritis?

-Disc edema
-Tortuosity of the vessels

27

Which has pain on EOM,: retrobulbar neuritis or papillitis? Why?

Retrobulbar--EOMs pull on optic nerve

28

What are the fundoscopic exam findings of optic atrophy?

Pallor of the optic nerve

29

What are the causes of optic atrophy?

Anything that inflames or compresses the optic nerve

30

What is the major chemical intoxication that can cause optic atrophy?

-Methanol

31

What TB drug can cause optic atrophy?

Ethambutol

32

What are the fundoscopic characteristics of optic atrophy?

Clear optic disc without color

33

What is cortical blindness?

Visual pathways are intact, but there is an issue in the cortex that prevents the processing of the image

34

What is the name of the inferior optic radiation?

Meyer's loop

35

What are the blood vessels that supply the optic radiations?

Middle and posterior cerebral artery

36

What is the calcarine fissure?

an anatomical landmark located at the caudal end of the medial surface of the brain.

37

What is Charles Bonnet syndrome?

the experience of complex visual hallucinations in a person with partial or severe blindness, but is cognitively intact

38

Who usually gets Charles Bonnet syndrome?

Old people

39

What are the characteristics of the hallucinations in Charles Bonnet syndrome?

Pleasant/interesting that the pt knows are not real

40

What is the treatment for Charles Bonnet syndrome?

Simple reassurance, maybe psych testing

41

What is cognitive visual loss?

visual variant of Alzheimer's--normal VA, but inability to process correctly

42

What is simultagnosia?

Inability to group letters into words, or words into sentences

43

How do you test for cognitive visual loss?

Clock drawing