Lectures After Test 1 Flashcards Preview

Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy > Lectures After Test 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lectures After Test 1 Deck (177):
1

components of shark skull

brain case and palatoquadrate cartilage

2

shark skull - occipital region

posterior; surrounds foramen magnum and includes occipital condyles

3

shark skull orbital region

otic capsules, orbital, sphenoidal

4

brain case containing nasal capsules

ethmoid region

5

brain case ventral articulation

with palatoquadrate

6

3 parts of basic bony vert skull

one element dermal, 2 elements dermal/endochondral combination

7

skull roof

dorsal cover of skull, nearly solid with openings for mouth/eyes/pineal, primitively nitched posteriorly, paired bones

8

5 groups of skull roof bones

tooth bearing marginal, midian, circumorbital, temporal, cheek

9

bones of tooth bearing marginal series

premaxillary, maxillary

10

bones of median series

nasal, frontal, parietal

11

bones of circumorbital series

jugular, lacrimal, prefrontal, postorbital, postfrontal

12

bones of temporal series

tabular, supratemporal, intertemporal

13

bones of cheek series

squamosal, quadratojugal

14

composition of bones of palatal complex

in roof of oral cavity; paired, mostly dermal, some visceral endochondral

15

early tetrapod dermal palatal bones

pterygoid, vomer, palatine, ectopterygoid

16

early tetrapod visceral endochondral palatal bones

palatoquadrate, quadrate, epipterygoid

17

early tetrapod lower jaw articulation

palatal complex with lower jaw via quadrate, basal brain case articulation between basisphenoid and epipterygoid

18

composition of bones of early tetrapod brain case

not all paired, mostly somatic endochondral, one dermal

19

dermal bone of early tetrapod brain case

parasphenoid; forms in skin on roof of oral cavity, ventral brain case

20

4 bones surrounding foramen magnum

supraoccipital, basioccipital, paired occipitals

21

2 paired bones associated with otic capsules - inner ear

opisthotic, prootic

22

basisphenoid

median, ventral, anterior to otic region, covered ventrally by parasphenoid, basal articulation with palatal complex via basipteygoid

23

sphenethmoid

median ossification of sphenoid/ethmoid regions, trough shaped, contains olfactory nerves

24

progression of skull types

early tetrapod, basal reptile, early synapsid, non mammalian therapsid, mammalian

25

characteristics of somatic muscles

derived from myotomes somites, always striated, mostly voluntary, innervated by somatic motor fibres, in appendages

26

characteristics of visceral muscles

derived largely from hypomere, smooth or striated, innervated by visceral motor fibres, in gut

27

characteristics of fish axial musculature

series of myomeres developed into zig zag important for locomotion, derived from myotome

28

epaxial muscle of fish

dorsalis trunci

29

reptile epaxial musculature

(closest to spinal column to farthest) iliocostalis, longissimus dorsi, transversospinalis

30

tetrapod hypaxial musculature

subvertebral, lateral, ventral series, insertion at aponeurosis

31

tetrapod subvertebral musculature series

underneath transverse processes of vertebrae

32

tetrapod ventral musculature series

rectus abdominus

33

tetrapod lateral musculature series

external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominus

34

function of connective tissue

produce same contractile strength and protect against breakage and torsion, decreases relative length of contraction

35

embryologic derivation of cranial muscles

somatic axial from epimere, visceral branchiomeric from neural crest

36

embryologic derivation of extrinsic eye muscles

3 preotic somites

37

resulting eye muscles of 1st myotome and innervation

ventral oblique, medial, dorsal, and ventral rectus; innervated by oculomotor nerve

38

resulting eye muscles of 2nd myotome and innervation

dorsal oblique innervated by trochlear nerve

39

resulting eye muscles of 3rd myotome and innervation

posterior rectus innervated by abducens nerve

40

coracoarcual muscles

in fish opens jaw, in tetrapods modified as throat musculature including tongue

41

branchiomeric musculature

striated, visceral, associated with visceral arches and later face/shoulder/jaw, derived from mesenchyme

42

evolutionary progression of gill/branchial arch musculature

levators fuse into cucullaris and attach to pectoral girdle, loss of superficial constrictors and interbranchials after operculum develops, loss of levators; then trapezius replaces cucullaris and all other muscles lost or reduced to muscles of larynx

43

evolutionary progression of muscles of hyoid arch

most muscles lost as hyoid turns into jaw support, most fish retain superficial constrictor and levator, tetrapods modify superficial constrictor into sphincter colli and depressor mandibulae, mammals lose depressor mandibulae while sphincter colli modified into facial muscles and digastric m

44

evolutionary progression of muscles of mandibular arch

levators lost as upper jaw fuses with braincase, intermandibularis name changed to mylohyoid in mammals

45

changes in mammalian jaw

mammals moved dermal skull bones inside musculature so lower jaw shortens, old jaw joints become ossicles, new jaw process

46

3 main muscles closing mammalian mouth

temporalis, masseter, pterygoideus

47

mammalian depressor mandibulae

function replaced by digastric derived from sphincter colli and mylohyoid

48

development of pharyngeal slits

in pocketing of endoderm and ectoderm until they make a passage

49

pharyngeal slit condition of cyclostomes

spherical pouches with small circular openings to external environment either separate for each pouch or joining in a common opening

50

flap like valve separating lamprey esophagus from respiratory tract

velum

51

lamprey gas exchange condition

when not eating lamprey ingests water through mouth like normal fish condition, when eating velum closes so blood doesn't go near gills

52

hagfish gas exchange condition

eats solid food so no need for isolated respiratory tube, gas exchange continues when attached to prey, nasal opening pumps water past gills

53

comparison between shark and teleost pharyngeal slits

both are vertical but teleosts have operculum so one opening, while sharks have separate openings for each slit all with own musculature

54

why are teleost pharyngeal slits more efficient at gas exchange than sharks

operculum stops need for interbranchial septa which allows for different arrangement of gills allowing as much water as possible to pass over gill lamellae

55

development of tetrapod lungs

analogous to gills, pharynx reduced, entrance to lungs through glottis i.e. ventral floor of pharynx, lungs develop from from pharynx embryologically

56

characteristics of the teleost swim bladder

dorsal, functions in buoyancy not gas exchange, not always connection between pharynx and swim bladder, most likely a specialization of ancestral lungs rather than ancestral to lungs themselves

57

characteristics of lungs

trachea > bronchi > bronchioles > alveoli where gas exchange happens, more derived = more surface area

58

bird respiratory system

lungs + air sacs distributed throughout trunk and some bones, air first enters more posterior air sacs and then moves forward to lungs then anterior sacs and out so that there is constant air distribution - more efficient than amphibians/mammals

59

characteristics of bird lungs

no alveoli, parabronchi instead which are tiny tubes, allows for one way, constant, flow of air wasting less air

60

cutaneous respiration

gas exchange through skin, usually secondary ability so mostly still have lungs

61

functions of digestive system

transport, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption

62

divisions of foregut

pharynx, esophagus, stomach - distinct internal epithelia, divided by cardioesophageal sphincter

63

divisions of small intestine

duodenum following pyloric sphincter, jejunem, ileum, ends at iliocecal valve

64

characteristics of large intestine

may be divided into ascending, descending, transverse, sigmoid and end in rectum which only exits digestive tract or cloaca which also exits other systems

65

functions of foregut

pipe taking food to where its treated, little chemical digestion, little specialization before derived animals

66

functions of stomach

only develops in jawed vertebrates as a storage area to feed food into intestine at rate at which it absorbs chemicals, size reduced by peristaltic contractions, jaws/stomach allow for large meals and then periods without food, in derived animals also chemical digestion

67

2 part stomach of birds

proventriculus - thin walled and glandular (chemical digestion); gizzard - thick walled and muscular, contains grit (intentionally ingested pebbles) to grind food (bc no teeth)

68

4 chambered system of ruminant animals

esophagus - rumen, reticulum, omasum; stomach - abomasum

69

why is a complex stomach necessary?

plant matter hard to digest but very easily obtained, one or more chambers carry microorganisms that digest plant matter

70

process of ruminant digestion

rumen and reticulum = fermentation chambers for breakdown of cellulose and production of useful material, food regurgitated as cud, further broken down in mouth, then swallowed into omasum and abomasum (mouth > rumen > mouth > reticulum > omasum > abomasum)

71

functions of hindgut

usually most of chemical digestion/absorption, large intestine = storage, water resorption

72

4 methods of increasing intestinal surface area as animals get bigger

lengthen (teleosts/tetrapods), spiral valve (primitive jawed fish), cecum (tetrapods), roughen internal surface

73

glandular organs of the gut

liver, spleen, pancreas

74

characteristics of liver

largest gland, typically divided into lobes, attached to cardiovascular system by hepatic system, develops as ventral outgrowth of anterior intestine (endoderm), connects to gut via bile duct (with gall bladder)

75

functions of liver

storage and manufacture of materials used by the body (from intestine), production of RBCs in fetus, disposal of old blood cells, detox of blood, production of bile and bile salts for lipid emulsification

76

characteristics of pancreas

develops from one ventral and one dorsal outgrowth of intestine, has one or more ducts leading to duodenum

77

functions of pancreas

produces pancreatic juice (alkaline enzymes), exocrine activity, islets of langerhans produce insulin and glucagon for endocrine activity

78

characteristics of spleen

not a gland, not part of digestive system but happens to be embryologically derived from endoderm, major embryonic blood producing organ (taken over by bone marrow in mammals), storage and destruction of blood corpuscles

79

development of mouth

in pocketing of ectoderm then boundary between endoderm and ectoderm breaks down, becomes opening to oral cavity

80

characteristics of tongue

true tongue essentially in terrestrial verts (different from rasping/primary tongues - once gills are lost), formed from hypobranchial musculature based at hyoid apparatus

81

functions of tongue

manipulate/obtain food, swallowing, may develop taste buds, vomeronasal function

82

types of oral glands

fish: few mucus glands; lamprey: pair of anticoagulant glands; terrestrial: salivary glands, sometimes poison

83

characteristics/functions of thyroid

begins as mid ventral outgrowth of pharynx and loses connection with it, can be scattered follicles or discrete glands, can migrate posteriorly in some animals; produces hormones and metabolizes iodine

84

characteristics/functions of thymus

develops from some pharyngeal pouches in all verts, located at base of neck, stem cells that differentiate into lymphocytes - involved in immune response (prominent in young reduced in adults)

85

teeth of cyclostomes

not true teeth, denticles protruding from disk, keratinized cones used to cling to flesh

86

teeth of gnathostomes

true teeth, mainly marginal series, may be secondarily lost, can also be palatine, vomerine, pharyngeal teeth; epidermal and dermal origin

87

homodont

reptiles, fishes - teeth all the same usually conical and simple

88

heterodont

mammals - differentiated teeth in different regions of oral cavity

89

patterns of tooth attachment to jaw bones

acrodont, pleurodont, thecodont

90

parts and materials making up true teeth

crown, root, pulp cavity; enamel, dentine, cementum

91

polyphyodonty

teeth continuously replaced in organized waves ensuring no one area becomes toothless, most lower verts

92

diphyodonty

two sets of teeth - most mammals

93

monophyodonty

one set of teeth that grow continuously as they are worn down throughout life - whales, sloths

94

types of mammalian teeth

incisors, canines, premolars (have juvenile precursors), molars (not replacement teeth)

95

functions of cardiovascular system

transportation of material to and from cells, circulation of hormones, immune system, repair of injured tissue

96

basic cardiovascular condition in fish

blood with low O2 goes heart to gills, blood filled with O2 goes to gut and back to heart via liver

97

basic cardiovascular condition in tetrapods

low O2 blood goes to heart to lungs, back to heart and out to body

98

4 systems of veins

subintestinal/hepatic, dorsal cardinal veins/vena cavae, abdominal veins, pulmonary veins

99

subintestinal veins

first system to arise in embryo, paired initially extending along gut surface and coalescing into single vein, initially: anteriorly heart to ventral aorta and posteriorly gut to heart; after liver develops: divides anterior part into hepatic vein, divides posterior part into hepatic portal vein

100

hepatic vein conditions

in most fishes hepatic vein - heart-liver, lungfish and tetrapods - part of hepatic vein incorporated into posterior vena cava so hepatic vein only defined as part that goes liver-post vena cava

101

cardinal veins in chondricthyeans and actinpterygians

replaced by vena cavae in higher forms, largely posterior/anterior paired veins in embryos, collect into common cardinal and into sinus venosus

102

cardinal veins in lungfish and tetrapods

posterior cardinal becomes less important so common cardinal becomes continuous with anterior cardinal, subclavian feeds into common cardinal so that dorsal veins begin to look like anterior vena cava

103

veins from head to heart in tetrapods

leaves head posteriorly through internal/external jugulars and subclavian more posteriorly, then through left/right anterior vena cavae or sometimes just right since left disappears (mammals forms brachiocephalic and AVC)

104

posterior cardinals in agnathans and sharks

in agnathans posterior cardinal drains blood from caudal, kidney, dorsal parts of body; in sharks renal portal vein develops

105

posterior cardinals in lungfish and urodeles

changes toward posterior vena cava by hepatic vein connecting to right posterior cardinal through a vein called posterior vena cava so that posterodorsal body parts have multiple return paths to heart

106

cardinal veins in lower tetrapods

loss of posterior cardinals, anterior cardinals reduced to azygous veins as anterior vena cava develops

107

cardinal veins/vena cavae in mammals

renal portal system lost, some mammals lose left anterior vena cava so azygous remains as hemiazygous

108

abdominal veins

in adult primitive verts and embryos of all verts, extend along anteroventral body wall

109

abdominal veins in chondricthyeans

abdominal vein receives subclavian and iliac veins

110

abdominal veins in actinopterygians and adult birds

NONE but iliac connects to renal portal and a vein goes from renal portal to liver, probably derived from abdominal

111

abdominal veins in lungfish, amphibians, reptiles

single median vessel, part of hepatic portal system, connects with iliac, renal portal

112

abdominal veins in mammals

NONE (also no renal portal) iliac goes into posterior vena cava

113

pulmonary vein

absent in most fish bc no lungs, but in lungfish pulmonary bypasses sinus venosus and enters heart through atrium, the condition existing in all higher verts

114

heart

formed from sub intestinal vein, posteriorly hepatic and hepatic portal veins, anteriorly becomes aorta/very muscular to pump blood

115

primitive heart condition and development

a tube with 4 chambers (same as shark) arranged in sequential order with valves to prevent back flow; chambers fold in on themselves in an S shape

116

tetrapod heart

sinus venosus and conus arteriosus become parts of large vessels, and atrium/ventricles get subdivided so that the heart can be a double pump

117

steps to building a double barrelled heart

separate entrances to heart for body and lungs, separation of atrium/ventricle into 2 chambers - lungfish incomplete separations, amphibians 2 atria 1 ventricle

118

heart chamber condition in turtles, snakes, lizards

partial septa in ventricle

119

heart chamber condition in reptiles

ventricle partially subdivided into dorsal and ventral, dorsal further incompletely subdivided

120

heart chamber condition in crocodiles

ventricles divided, gap at base of arterial trunks at foramen of panniza shunts blood from left ventricle to left systemic artery - foramen can be closed and is useful for diving

121

heart condition in birds and mammals

completely separated chambers, completely separate flow of ox and deox blood

122

lymphatic system

secondary system supplementing veins returning excess interstitial fluids from tissues to heart that has left capillaries due to osmotic pressure

123

arise from heart in pairs and pass through gill bars as efferent or afferent

aortic arches

124

extends downwards and forwards from efferent branchial artery, supplies oxygenated blood to lower jaw

external carotid artery

125

aortic arch 1, between mouth and spiracle

mandibular artery

126

aortic arch 2, between spiracle and first normal slit

hyoid artery

127

role of kidney

major excretory organ in vertebrates, rids body of nitrogenous waste, major role in water balance

128

early kidney embryology

mesomere develops into nephrotome which develops from front to back - 1 nephric unit/body segment

129

holonephros

idealized primitive kidney formed from longitudinal series of nephric units draining into archinephric duct which at that point = wolffian duct

130

what exists instead of holonephros

sometimes almost approach holonephros condition but in hagfishes and higher verts anterior tubules degenerate,

131

pronephros

anteriormost holonephros that develops into archinephric duct

132

opisthonephros

posterior to pronephros in idealized primitive and later develops an increased # of tubules, a loss of segmentation, and a concentration to posterior of body into kidneys, and anterior part to associate with testis by archinaephric

133

amniote primitive kidney condition

nephrotome develops into segmentally arranged tubules at anterior end, 1st 3 join into pronephros > archinephric, leads to developing cloaca

134

mesonephros

posterior to pronephros, develops to join existing archinephric, but acts as a functional kidney for embryonic development

135

metanephros

develops from tubules posterior to mesonephros, unsegmented mostly spherical mass that develops large # of tubules in late embryo and adult, tubules do not empty into archinephric but into newly developed ureter

136

anamniote kidney condition

no metanephros > ureter, drained by archinephric and accessory ducts

137

cyclostome urogenital duct condition

no gonadal ducts, sperm and ova shed directly into body cavity, archinephric used for urine by kidney

138

gnathostome/teleost urogenital duct condition

sperm and ova pass to outside via closed tubes but ova shed into coelum and funnelled into duct lying close by, archinephric used for urine by kidney

139

female gonadal ducts

ovarian or mullein that eventually develop uterine tube and uterus in various forms by infolding or splitting epithelium near archinephric

140

male gonadal ducts

testes usually taps into archinephric, develops anteriorly in coelom (near part of kidney that loses urinary function) along with seminiferous tubules, which may connect with anterior kidney

141

anamniote urogenital duct condition

archinephric used for sperm conduction, ova through mullerian duct, urine passes through accessory ducts to caudal archinephric or cloaca

142

amniote urogenital duct condition

archinephric develops into ductus deferens for sperm conduction, oviduct conducts ova (female archinephric degenerates), ureter used for urine

143

motor neurons

efferent; develops from CNS

144

sensory neurons

afferent; develops from neural crest

145

4 nerve fibres of the PNS

somatic sensory, somatic motor, visceral sensory, visceral motor

146

function of somatic sensory nerves

from skin and sense organs of muscles, tendons

147

function of somatic motor nerves

to somatic musculature

148

function of visceral sensory nerves

from gut

149

function of visceral motor nerves

to gut muscles, blood vessels, glands

150

visceral efferent system

efferent > autonomic / special branchial > parasympathetic / sympathetic

151

characteristics of spinal nerves

usually paired and in every segment, formed from dorsal and ventral roots at spinal cord (primitively unfused), divides into rami upon leaving vertebral canal (mostly somatic fibres)

152

mammalian arrangement of fibres by root

dorsal - somatic and visceral sensory, ventral - somatic and visceral motor

153

lower amniote, fish, amphibian arrangement of fibres by root

dorsal - somatic, visceral sensory and visceral motor, ventral - somatic and visceral motor

154

amphioxus arrangement of fibres by root

dorsal - somatic motor, ventral - somatic and visceral sensory, visceral motor

155

central nervous systems

brain and spinal cord, formed from rolling neurectoderm i.e. early chordomesoderm along mid dorsal line into neural tube and then front enlarges becoming brain

156

primitive tripartite brain sections

prosencephalon, mesencephalon, rhombencephalon

157

functions of primitive tripartite brain sections

smell, sight (later switches to cerebrum), lateral line (and later hearing)

158

basal vertebrate 5 part brain sections as they develop from tripartite sections

prosencephalon - telencephalon, diencephalon; mesencephalon; rhombencephalon - metencephalon and myencephalon

159

telencephalon

olfactory bulbs; cerebrum

160

diencephalon

thalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus

161

mesencephalon

optic lobes

162

metencephalon

cerebellum and pons in mammals

163

myencephalon

medulla oblongata

164

ventricles associated with brain sections

telencephalon - 2 lateral; diencephalon - 3rd, mesencephalon - optic (until location changed), metencephalon - cerebellar; myencephalon - 4th ventricle

165

3 types of cranial nerve fibres

special branchial motor, special visceral sensory (taste), special somatic sensory (nose, eyes, ears/lateral line)

166

3 types of nerves (cranial and spinal fibres combined)

special sensory, dorsal root, ventral root

167

the 13 cranial nerves

0 terminalis I olfactory II optic III oculomotor IV trochlear V1 profundus V2,3 trigeminal proper VI abducens VII facial VIII acoustic IX glossopharyngeal X/XI vagus/accessory XII hypoglossal

168

ventral root cranial nerves

i.e. somatic motor; oculomotor, trochlear, abducens, hypoglossal

169

special somatic sensory cranial nerves

olfactory, optics, auditory and bonus lateral line nerves

170

muscles innervated by oculomotor

ventral oblique, dorsal, ventral, medial rectus

171

muscles innervated by trochlear

dorsal oblique

172

muscles innervated by abducens

lateral rectus

173

dorsal root cranial nerves

trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus/accessory

174

nerve of mandibular arch

trigeminal

175

nerve of hyoid arch (and spiracle when present)

facial

176

nerve of first branchial arch

glossopharyngeal

177

nerves of last 4 branchial arches

vagus and accessory