What is a past participle?
The past participle is a verb form that is essential to the conjugation of compound tenses. Past participles are also often used as adjectives or for the passive voice. In English, past participles end in "-ed" or "-en": "I've already cooked - Ya he cocinado. "I've already eaten" - Ya he comido.
How do you form a past participle?
The past participle for regular verbs is formed by adding -ado to the stem of -ar verbs or -ido to the stem of -er or -ir verbs.
Can past participles be used as adjectives?
Yes, past participles are often used as adjectives. When they do, they agree in number and gender: "The girls are tired" --> Las niñas están cansadas.
What is the present perfect tense in Spanish?
The present perfect tense is constructed by using the auxiliary verb haber (have) with the past participle of the primary verb:
- An immediate past: "She hasn't eaten yet" --> Todavía no ha comido
- Information independent of time: "I haven't gone out with Jorge" --> No he salido con Jorge
- A past inhabited by the speaker: "Recently, I've been very sad" --> Recientemente he estado muy triste
I haven't eaten yet
Todavía no he comido
I have (present perfect) - yo he. Notice that we already learned the impersonal conjugation of haber in the third person (hay--> there is, there are). When haber is used as an auxiliary verb, as it is used here, it can be conjugated for every person
I've canceled the trip
He cancelado el viaje
canceled - cancelado. This is the past participle of the verb cancelar. Add -ado to the stem of the verb.
You haven't done your homework
No has hecho tu tarea
you have (present perfect) - tú has
Repeat what you have learned
Repite lo que has aprendido
learned - aprendido. This is the past participle of the verb aprender. Add -ido to the stem of the verb.
Monica has been happy lately
Monica ha estado contenta últimamente
he/she has (present perfect) - él/ella/ud ha
She's lived in 12 countries
Ella ha vivido en doce países
lived - vivido (-ir past participle)
Eduardo, Miguel and I have not gone out yet
Eduardo, Miguel, y yo todavía no hemos salido
we have (present perfect) - nosotros hemos
We've already explained it to her
Ya se lo hemos explicado
explained - explicado (-ar past participle)
You (vosotros) have not loved
Vosotros no habéis amado
you have (present perfect) - vosotros habéis
You all have not met my friend Alexander?
¿No habéis conocido a mi amigo Alejandro?
met - conocido (-er past participle)
They have not finished their homework
Ellos no han terminado su tarea
they have (present perfect) - ellos/ellas/uds han
His books have been translated into many languages
Sus libros han sido traducidos a muchos idiomas
translated - traducido (-ir past participle)
TO HAVE (Present Perfect)
- I have (eaten)
- You have (eaten)
- He/She has (eaten)
- We have (eaten)
- You have (eaten)
- They have (eaten)
HABER (Tiempo Pretérito Perfecto)
- Yo he (comido)
- Tú has (comido)
- Él/Ella/Ud ha (comido)
- Nosotros hemos (comido)
- Vosotros habéis (comido)
- Ellos/Ellas/Uds han (comido)
What is the past participle ending for -ar verbs like amar?
Participio de verbos que terminan en -ar como amar (-ado)
- Yo he amado
- Tú has amado
- Él ha amado
- Nosotros hemos amado
- Vosotros habéis amado
- Ellos han amado
What is the past participle ending for -er and -ir verbs like comer?
Participio de verbos que terminan en -er e -ir como comer (-ido)
- Yo he comido
- Tú has comido
- Él ha comido
- Nosotros hemos comido
- Vosotros habéis comido
- Ellos han comido
What is the Past Perfect Tense in Spanish?
The Past Perfect Tense is formed by using haber as an auxiliary verb. Haber is conjugated in the imperfect tense with the past participle of the primary verb. It describes the past of the past:
- "They had already left" --> Ya se habían ido
- "They had eaten all of the food" --> Habían comido toda la comida
When they got back, I had already eaten
Cuando volvieron, yo ya había comido
I had eaten (past perfect) - (yo) había comido. Note that in Spanish compound tenses, the helping verb haber and its participle are never separated.
You had done a lot for them
Tú habías hecho mucho para ellos
you had done (past perfect) - habías hecho
Monica had been happy
Mónica había estado feliz
he/she had been (past perfect) - (él/ella/Ud) había estado
My brother and I had reserved a hotel room
Mi hermano y yo habíamos reservado un cuarto en el hotel
we had reserved (past perfect) - habíamos reservado
You all had already left when they arrived
Ustedes ya se habían ido cuando llegaron
you had left (past perfect, Spain) - habíais ido
They had sung for the president
Habían cantado para el presidente
they had sung (past perfect) - habían cantado
I had moved to California for a year
Me había mudado a California por un año
I had moved (changed residence) - me había mudado. Recall that mudarse is a reflexive verb, and that the reflexive pronoun should go before the helping verb in compound tenses.
Had you reserved a hotel room before your trip?
¿Habías reservado un cuarto en el hotel antes del viaje?
you had reserved (in a hotel, restaurant) - tú habías reservado
She had bumped into an old friend in Berlin
Ella se había tropezado con un viejo amigo en Berlín
he/she had bumped into (past perfect) - él/ella/Ud se había tropezado con
We had told her everything
Le habíamos contado todo
We had told (past perfect) - nosotros habíamos contado