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Flashcards in Lower GI II Deck (47)
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1

______ hydrolyzes starch to form sugars

Amylase

2

Amylase is secreted by glands in the _______ as well as by the ______

mouth, pancreas

3

Starch is hydrolyzed to ________

disaccharides

4

Disaccharides are broken down to __________

monosaccharides

5

the breakdown of disaccharides occurs in _______ of _________

brush border of small intestine

6

Monosaccharides are absorbed by _________

enterocytes

7

The absorption of monosaccharides by enterocytes involves

energy-dependent mediator-specific carriers: Na+-dependent sugar glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1)

8

Digestion of proteins begins in the ______

stomach

9

Proteins are hydrolyzed to

peptides

10

Digestion of proteins occurs through action of ______ (activated form of ______)

Pepsin (activated form of pepsinogen)

11

The digestion of proteins requires _____ environment of stomach, why?

proteins. Activation of pepsinogen to pepsin occurs in acidic enviroments

12

Polypeptide breakdown to peptides also occurs in the ______ and also occurs in the _______

stomach, small intestine

13

Polypeptide breakdown to peptides in the small intestine involves what enzymes secreted by the ______?

Secreted by the pancreas

-Trypsin
-Chymotrypsin
- Elastase
- Carboxypeptidase

14

Activation of pancreatic proteolytic enzymes is initiated by ______ (______) secreted by ___________

Enteropeptidase (enterokinase)

secreted by Duodenal enterocytes

15

Breakdown of oligopeptides to amino acids occurs in the

intestinal brush border

16

Transport of amino acids into enterocytes is via

carrier mediated process

17

Digestion of lipids begins in the _____

small intestine

18

Lipids enter the small intestine as _______

triglyceride droplets

19

________ emulsifies triglyceride droplets into smaller droplets and releases fatty acids and glycerol

pancreatic lipase

20

Fatty acids and glycerol combine with bile salts to form

micelles (2 nm in diameter)

21

Micelles can transport

-Fatty acids
- monoglycerides
- glycerol
- phospholipids
- cholesterol
- Vitamin A
- Vitamin K

22

_______ splits cholesterol into cholesterol and fatty acids

pancreatic lipid esterase

23

pancreatic lipid esterase splits cholesterol esters into

cholesterol and fatty acids

24

Micelles are _______ absorbed across ______ apical plasma membrane

passively, enterocyte

25

what is required for micelles to be passively absorbed across enterocyte apical plasma membrane

Requires fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) in apical membrane

26

monoglycerides and glycerol are reesterified in the enterocyte ______ to form ______

SER, Triglycerides

27

The reesterification of monoglycerides and glycerol in the enterocyte SER requires _______ and _____ , which are found in

Acyl-CoA synthetase and acyltransferase

- found in membranes of enterocyte SER

28

Triglycerides recombine with proteins (from RER) to form ________

chylomicrons

29

Digestion of carbohydrates begin in the _______

mouth

30

Triglycerides recombine with proteins (from RER) to form

Chylomicrons