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Flashcards in Renal Histology Deck (115)
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the urinary system consists of

- two kidneys and ureters
- the urinary bladder and urethra


Each kidney has somewhat of an ____ shape with a _____ lateral border and a slightly _____ or_____ medial border through which pass the renal artery, vein, and the ureter

oval shape, convex lateral border, concave or indented medial border.


A sagittal section of the kidney reveals what structures

-an outer capsule surrounding the entire kidney except for the hilum
- an outer cortical area beneath the capsule which has a cup-like form with the open side of the cup facing the hilum
- a juxtamedullary cortex deep to the outer cortical area
- a medullary area made up of triangular-shaped renal pyramids and divided into:
- an outer medullary area deep to the juxtamedullary cortex
- an inner medullary area deep to the outer medullary area
- the renal pelvis into which empty the renal pyramids


Each kidney is fed by a large ______ artery branching directly off the

renal artery branching directly off the abdominal aorta


___ is the functional unit of the kidney



There are approximately _____ nephrons per kidney

one million


Each nephron consists of

- Renal Corpuscle
- Renal tubule


A renal corpuscle is composed of

- A cup-shaped capsule referred to as Bowman's capsule
- A glomerulus
- this is a capillary knot situated between two arterioles that lies within the indentation of Bowman's Capsule


this is a capillary knot situated between two arterioles that lies within the indentation of Bowman's Capsule



A renal tubule is a continuation of

bowman's capsule


nephrons empty into

collecting ducts


Collecting ducts empty into

the renal pelvis


What are the two types of Nephrons



The renal corpuscles of cortical nephrons are located

The cortex


The glomeruli of cortical nephrons empty into

peritubular capillary networks that surround the proximal and distal convoluted tubules of their own nephrons and those of surrounding nephrons


Structure of cortical nephrons loops of henle

have short loops of henle that do not extend deeply into the medulla


the renal corpuscles of juxtamedullary nephrons are located

in the cortex next to the cortical-medullary junction


The glomeruli of juxtamedullary nephrons empty into

vasa recta consisting of long, straight arterioles and venues that run parallel to the loops of Henle and collecting ducts


The loops of henle in juxtamedullary nephrons

Juxtamedullary nephrons have long loops of Henle that extend deeply into medulla


sequence of branching for the renal artery within the kidney

renal artery----> Interlobar arteries ----> Arcuate arteries----> interlobular arteries----> afferent glomerular arteries-------------->glomerular capillary network (glomeruli)------> efferent glomerular arterioles-----> vasa recta (peritubular capillaries) ------> Interlobular veins -----> arcuate veins -----> interlobar veins -----> Renal veins


in general, a capillary network is interposed between

an arteriole and a venule


Explain the arterial portal system in the kidneys

An arteriole is interposed between two capillary networks. An afferent arteriole give rise to a mass of capillaries, the glomerulus. These capillaries coalesce to form an efferent arteriole, which gives rise to capillary networks (peritubular capillary network and the vasa recta) surrounding the nephrons.


Explain Venous portal system in liver and hypophysis

Arteriole to capillary to vein. the veins then feed into an extensive capillary or sinusoid network draining into a vein.


The glomerulus is a ______ inserted between two arterioles

Capillary bed


The glomerulus is a ____ inserted between two ____

Capillary bed inserted between two arterioles (afferent arteriole and efferent arteriole)


A typical capillary bed is inserted between

an arteriole and a venule


The efferent arteriole feeds into either

- a capillary loop, the vasa recta
- a capillary network, the peritubular capillaries


Where are peritubular capillaries found

in cortical nephrons
- efferent arterioles drain into them


Where are vasa recta found

in juxtamedullary nephrons
- efferent arterioles drain into them in juxtamedullary nephrons


Circular smooth muscle cells at the vascular pole

Juxtaglomerular cells